The classification of counties based on Census household counts and metropolitan proximity. "A" counties are highly urbanized areas and belong to the 21 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas. The combined counties contain 40% of the United States households.
In reference to ad placement in traditional media, such as newspapers, this defines the top half of the page. On the web, this portion of the page is viewed without scrolling.
A method of audience counting that counts each person exposed to a particular medium in a given time period once.
The number of weeks in a media schedule with programs or dayparts scheduled for broadcast.
Independent verification of measured activity for a specified time period. Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits and unique visitors. An activity audit results in a report verifying the metrics. Formerly known as a count audit.
A commercial message targeted to an advertiser's customer or prospect.
A graphic image or other media object used as an advertisement.
Software available to internet users that blocks the appearance of advertising on web pages. Typically, these programs suppress so-called pop-up and pop-under ads.
Audience measurement derived from a third-party ad server's own server logs.
A measurement of the user-initiated action of responding to (such as clicking on) an ad element, causing a re-direct to another web location, or another frame or page, within the advertisement. There are three types of ad clicks; 1) click-throughs; 2) in-unit clicks and; 3) mouseovers. Ad click-throughs should be tracked and reported as a 302 re-direct at the ad server and should filter out robotic activity.
Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.
Research that is specifically designed to address a particular problem or issue. Ad hoc research is usually conducted when there is insufficient existing information. Ad hoc projects are usually single pieces of research rather than part of a continuous program.
Historically, an organization charged with the representation of advertising space for a group of websites for the purpose of maximizing revenue and minimizing administrative costs through aggregation. The role of an Internet advertising network is to transact, serve, track and report the distribution of creative from advertisers to publishers using an efficient, interactive marketplace.
A specific advertising opportunity on a website. Example: banners, jump pages, pop-ups, splash pages and tickers.
A measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents are exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time are asked if they recall the ad. Ad recall can be on an aided or unaided basis. Aided ad recall is when the respondent is told the name of the brand or category being advertised.
The request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user's action recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user's browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a web content server.
Different ads and different ad sources are often rotated in the same space on a web page. Ad rotation can be static (one ad per page view) or dynamic (more than one ad per page view cycled based on elapsed display time). This is usually done automatically by software on the web site. This function is related to, but different from ad serving provided by a network.
Name for the organization, hardware, and software that deliver advertising creative to the user's browser. The ad server typically is responsible for selecting the appropriate ad to serve by frequency control and targeting. The ad server also performs a variety of other administrative tasks including real time reporting of impressions, click, uniques and more.
The delivery of ads by a server to an end user's computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed either by a web publisher, or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.
The series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site.
A national or regional cable TV channel, such as MTV or ESPN that makes available a certain amount of time per hour for local commercials.
The successful display of an advertiser's web site after the user clicked on an ad. When a user clicks on an advertisement, a click-through is recorded and re-directs or "transfers" the user's browser to an advertiser's web site. If the user successfully displays the advertiser's web site, an ad transfer is recorded.
When the ad is actually seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.
Separate from the content window.
The ability to send special instructions to individual decoder boxes in subscriber households from the home office of a pay (i.e., subscription) TV company. This facilitates pay-per-view programming (e.g., such special attractions as sports events, concerts, blockbuster movies) that is offered to subscribers on an a la carte basis. Addressability can also be used by the pay TV company to turn the service off (and on again) automatically on an individual home basis if payments are overdue.
Equipment in cable households which allows cable operators to turn on or off the converter for pay-per-view type events.
A geographic survey area, created and defined by Arbitron, based on measurable viewing patterns. Arbitron exclusively assigned each county in the 48 contiguous United States to one ADI. In general, a county is assigned to an ADI based upon the predominance of viewing (by households in the county) to home market stations. ADI's help to document extended coverage of a radio station.
Commercial announcements which are next to, or adjacent to, a program rather than in breaks within the main body of the program. These break positions are available for local or spot advertisers only.
A change made to a rating, share, or viewing level to predict a future achievement. Adjustment is synonymous with "estimate" or "projection".
The company whose spot or ads run in a media schedule.
A paid, mediated, form of communication from an identifiable source, designed to persuade the receiver to take some action, now or in the future.
An organization acting as an agent for a producer of goods or services (an advertiser) devoted to developing and placing advertising in order to further the acceptance of a brand, product, service, or idea.
An evaluation of the extent to which a specific advertisement, or advertising campaign, meets the objectives specified by the client. There are a variety of approaches to evaluation, including inquiry tests, recall tests, and market tests. The measurement approaches include recall of ads and advertising themes, attitudes toward the advertising, persuasiveness, and impact on actual sales levels.
The visual and/or auditory information prepared by an advertiser to inform and/or persuade and audience regarding a product, organization, or idea. It is sometimes called the creative work by advertising professionals in recognition of the talent and skill required to prepare the more effective pieces of advertising.
A measure of the opportunity for readers to see a particular print advertisement, whether or not they actually look at the ad.
An explicit outline of what goals an advertising campaign should achieve, how to accomplish those goals, and how to determine whether or not the campaign was successful in obtaining those goals.
Research conducted to improve the efficacy of advertising. It may focus on a specific ad or campaign, or may be directed at a more general understanding of how advertising works or how consumers use the information in advertising. It can entail a variety of research approaches, including psychological, sociological, economic, and other perspectives.
Revenue realized from the sale of advertising.
The occurrence of consumers becoming so used to an ad that they stop paying attention to it.
An advertisement that has the appearance of a news article or editorial, in a print publication.
A notarized confirmation included with all network and station invoices which verifies that commercials actually ran at the dates and times shown on the invoice.
1) Typical term for a web site that drives traffic to another web site in exchange for a percent of sales from users driven to the site. 2) A station contractually bound to one or more national television or cable networks to carry network programming and announcements.
An agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.
Selling products or services to customers on the basis of their established buying patterns. The offer can be communicated by email promotions, online or offline advertising.
Newspaper advertising space that is one column wide by one-fourteenth of an inch deep. Most newspapers now use column inch or Standard Advertising Unit (SAU) advertising space measurements.
A defined range of ages, such as 18-24.
An advertising agency assigned specific media buying responsibilities by a client.
The agency's fee for designing and placing advertisements. Historically, this was calculated as 15 percent of the amount spent to purchase space or time in the various media used for the advertising. In recent years the commission has, in many cases, become negotiable, and may even be based on some measure of the campaign's success.
Data that is rolled up from a smaller unit to show summary data.
Stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. This is a historical model of how advertising works, by first getting the consumer's attention, then their interest, etc.
The percentage of respondents who claim to have seen something (e.g., a brand or an advertisement) after having been shown some form of stimulus material.
To broadcast, to present a program over the air waves.
A variety of advertising displays are available at airports, ranging from Dioramas (backlit wall posters) to free-standing islands or specially built exhibits.
A URL that points to another web site. Many web sites use aliases to differentiate traffic.
The number and type of outdoor posters in a showing.
The technologies included in alternate delivery sources are satellite (C-Band), DBS (KU-Band), SMATV (Master Antennae) and MMDS (includes Multi-channel, Multi-point and Multi-point distribution service).
Text that appears while a banner is loading or when a cursor moves over a banner.
The most commonly used frequency for transmitting video content. Commercials stored on videotape, for instance, us an analog format. A more recent technology involves the conversion of analog content to a digital, or computer-based, format.
An animation created by combining multiple GIF images in one file. The result is multiple images, displayed one after another, that give the appearance of movement.
Measurement representing the total number of vehicles passing a given location, based upon 24-hour counts taken over an entire year. Mechanical counts are adjusted to an estimate of annual average daily traffic figures, taking into account seasonal variance, weekly changes and other variables.
An intermediary which prevents web sites from seeing a user's Internet Protocol (IP) address.
A small application served along with or instead of an image file for the purpose of executing a specific animation, visual or audio sequence. Some rich media creatives are served using a Java applet. Applets are typically intended to provide an enhanced web user experience, comparable to a plug-in.
The distance measured along the line of travel from the point where the advertising structure first becomes visible to the point where copy is no longer readable (having passed out of sight).
A rating service that uses a sample of household keeping daily diaries to measure audience size and composition for local radio stations.
Subscribers retained on active subscription list after expiration.
The major streets of a city or town.
A media test translation procedure in which test markets receive the same advertising pressure they would be expected to receive under the national plan being tested. The underlying premise of this translation methodology is that the sales potential of a product has variation by market area. Selection of test markets and analysis of test results should recognize these sales differences.
Ascription is a model developed used to achieve a complete data set. The technique ascribes missing data by assigning responses from a donor respondent to a recipient respondent with similar demographic characteristics.
Subscription received as part of membership in an association.
Measured by both Simmons and MRI, describes "how attentively" people claim to view TV by time period or program according to the viewer's own classification.
A word or phrase used to describe a qualitative characteristic of an idea or object under consideration (e.g., gender).
The loss of respondents from a research panel. Panel members may drop out voluntarily or be asked to leave. The attrition rate usually is expressed as a percentage of the ongoing panel for one year.
The number of people or households exposed to a vehicle, without regard to whether they actually saw, heard, or read the material conveyed by that vehicle. TV Meter Sample: viewed during average minute. TV Diary Sample: viewed at least 5 minutes during a quarter hour. Radio Diary Sample: listened at least 5 minutes during a quarter hour. Print: opened to or looked into any page of a magazine or newspaper. The formula for Household Audience = Demographic Audience / VPVH OR Household Audience X VPVH. The formula for Demographic Audience = Household Audience X VPVH.
The demographic make-up of the audience of a media vehicle or schedule. Also known as audience profile, and usually includes the percentages of the total audience that fall into each demographic segment. Audience Composition = Demographic Audience x Total Audience.
The total number of persons or households exposed more than once to the same media vehicle or to a particular advertising campaign during a specified period of time.
A measure of the change in audience during and between programs. Audience flow shows the percentages of people or households who turn on or off a program, switch to or from another channel, or remain on the same channel as the previous program.
The ratio of cumulative to average quarter-hour audiences. Turnover is a valuable index of the consistency of an audience. In theory, it is the number of times an audience is replaced by new listeners within a daypart. Turnover = Cume Persons / AQH Persons.
1) Examination of a publisher's records and corroborative data in order to check for correctness in the Publisher's Statements covering the period audited. 2) Third party validation of log activity and/or measurement process associated with Internet activity/advertising. Activity audits validate counts. Process audits validate internal controls associated with measurement.
A third-party independent organization that performs audits.
The commercial position in a program or between programs on a given station or network that an advertiser can purchase. Avails in Out-of-Home media are the same as other media - it is the space available for sale at a given time.
A statistical measure. The most common average is arithmetic mean. This is computed by adding a group of values together and dividing by the total number of values in the group.
The number of homes or persons tuned to a television program during an average minute, or the number of persons who viewed an average issue of a print publication.
The average number of times that each home or person is exposed to an advertising schedule or campaign. Average Frequency = Gross Rating Points (GRP's) / Cume (non-duplicated audience). For example, if a group of programs has achieved 30 GRP's and a cume of 20, then the average frequency is 1.5 exposures per person or household.
The average number of people exposed to an issue of any publication.
The average (mean) number of copies that a publication distributed each issue. Average Paid Circulation = Total Paid Circulation of all issues during the period / Total Number of Issues.
The average number of persons listening to or viewing a particular station for at least five minutes during a 15 minute time period.
The percentage of the measured population that listens to or views a particular station for at least five minutes during a 15 minute time period. AQH Rating = AQH / Measured Population.
The percentage of the total market listening to or viewing a particular station for at least five minutes during a 15 minute time period. AQH Share = AQH / Total Population.
A measure of the respondents' knowledge of an object or an idea. There are two main measures of awareness - spontaneous (or unaided) and prompted (or aided) awareness.
A paradigm consisting of three key steps by the intended user. The steps take the person or firm from a state of ignorance about a new product to the point of product adoption. Awareness (cognition) may be of the product generally, its brand, and one or more of its attributes. Trial means some form of test purchase or use, following upon favorable affect stemming from knowledge regarding the attributes. Repeat means the trial was sufficiently successful to warrant one or more repeat purchases. There are other, similar, paradigms (for example attention, interest, desire, action – or AIDA) but these are not new or product specific and do not cover the entire product adoption process.
The classification of counties based on Census household counts and metropolitan proximity. "B" counties are counties not defined as A counties that have more than 85,000 households. The combined counties contain 30% of United States households.
Running more than one commercial, with one following immediately after another.
An issue of a publication is considered to be a back copy immediately upon the appearance for sale of the next issue.
The period or periods of data prior to the most current period.
Advertising structures which house illumination in a box to throw light through translucent advertising printed on plastic or heavy duty paper for higher visibility, especially at night.
In a general sense, this term describes information-carrying capacity. It can apply to radio frequency signals, telephone or network wiring as well as system buses and monitors. In broadcasting parlance, this is a section of the radio frequency spectrum needed to transmit visually, aurally, or both. The bandwidth of the average television channel is 6 million cycles per second (6 MHZ). In Internet parlance, it’s also common to use bits or bytes per second. A 2400 baud modem can handle 2.4 kilobits per second. A T1 line can handle 1.544 megabits per second. A T3 industrial interconnect can handl 45 megabits per second. A 100 base-T Ethernet interconnect can handle 100 megabits per second. Bandwidth is analogous to the size of a water pipe.
Advertisements on a web page that link to an advertiser’s site. They are the most common unit of advertising on the web. The image is usually displayed at the top of each page in a web site, containing text and design elements. The term “banner ad” refers to a specific size image, measuring 468 pixels wide and 60 pixels tall (468x60), but it is also used as a generic description of all graphical ad formats on the internet.
Over-exposure of an advertising creative that contributes to a drop in click-through rates. Frequency control reduces burnout for a particular creative or campaign.
The exchange of advertising time, space, or product mentions for merchandise supplied by the advertiser, usually arranged through a barter agency. The barter contract usually establishes the proportion of inventory to be paid for with barter units or cash.
A program distribution method in which the syndicator retains and sells a portion of the show’s advertising time. In “cash plus barter”, the syndicator also receives some money from the station on which the program airs.
The required number of interviews to be completed, or a defined universe upon which an analysis will be done.
The number of in-tab households used in computation.
Channels received by cable subscribers at no extra charge, usually supported by advertising and small per-subscriber fees paid by cable operators.
The index of a brand’s per capita sales in a given local market, as compared to national per capita sales for the brand. BDI’s are often used to identify markets of opportunity. BDI = (% of brand sales in market area / % of total population in market area) X 100.
Advertising panels affixed to lifeguard towers (available in LA county beach areas).
A test version of a product, such as a web sit or software, prior to final release.
A probability mixture model commonly used to represent patterns of brand choice behavior or media exposure patterns. The model assumes that each individual’s behavior follows a Bernoulli process. That is, an individual performs some behavior of interest with probability p on each possible opportunity. The number of times that the behavior of interest is exhibited, out of a given number of opportunities, has the binomial distribution for any individual. The model further assumes that the probability values p vary across individuals according to a beta distribution. These models are used to predict future brand choice or media exposure patterns based on individuals’ past behavior.
Online advertising not involving standard GIF and JPEG banner ads.
The amount that an advertiser is willing to pay for a click on a specific keyword.
1) Large format advertising displays intended for viewing from extended distances, generally more than 50 feet. Billboard displays are: 30-Sheet Posters, 8-Sheet Posters, Vinyl-Wrapped Posters, Bulletins, Wall Murals and Stadium Signage. 2) Sponsor identification at the beginning or end of a television show, usually 5-10 seconds in length.
An advertising agency’s total charges to an advertiser, including media and production costs, as well as other non-commissionable agency charges.
An insert card bound in with, or glued onto, a magazine’s printed pages.
The smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit has single binary value of either 0 or 1. There are eight bits in a byte.
A measure of bandwidth which tells you how fast data is traveling from one place to another on a computer network. Bit rate is usually expressed in kilobits (100 bits) per second or Kbps.
An advertising page printed with black ink on white paper.
When a home sporting event is not carried by local TV because of a contractual agreement or regulations imposed by a league.
The print ad or brochure for which the color, graphics, and/or artwork extends to the edge of the page. Such pages have no unprinted margins or borders, and are usually sold at a premium price.
The use of blanking papers of the same color as the Poster background to bring the design up to the molding.
Advertising activity over a short period. For example, one week on – one week off – one week on.
Series of programming with common demographic appeal scheduled one after another.
An advertisement, subscription request, or other printed card “blown” into a print publication, rather than bound into it.
A commercial given to an advertiser without cost, either to make up for undelivered audience (in this case they are called “makegoods”), or as an inducement to buy additional spots.
A two-part broadcast advertisement; the first part airs at the beginning of a spot set and last part airs at the end.
Short for robot.
What happens when emails are returned to the mail server as undeliverable.
An agency that provides a limited service, such as one that does creative work but does not provide media planning, research, etc. Usually, this refers to a relatively small company.
A specific manufacturer’s name for a product or series of products (i.e., a brand of soap). Brand names are often trademarks or registered.
1) The situation in which a consumer generally buys the same manufacturer-originated product or service repeatedly over time, rather than buying from multiple suppliers within the category (sales promotion definition). 2) The degree to which a consumer consistently purchases the same brand within a product class (consumer behavior definition).
The location of a brand in relation to its competitors in some pre-defined space. The space may be defined by criteria used by consumers, such as “value for money” or “age of consumer”, etc.
The percentage of sales of a specific product category that are accounted for by one brand. Brand shares can be expressed in terms of the sales value or the volume of units sold.
A purchasing pattern characterized by a change from one brand to another.
A traditional advertising method used to elicit a latent response from a target based on cumulative impressions and positive reinforcement.
The time between two programs or program segments used for announcements, news briefs, credit or commercials.
A method of calculating ratings estimates that takes into account the quarter-hour preceding the program and/or the quarter-hour following the program.
Programs or time periods scheduled to air between two television programs.
Distribution network that carries a large number of channels spread out over a wide bandwidth. Bandwidth is defined as the numerical difference between the highest and lowest frequency in use.
An organization that monitors and reports network TV, selected spot TV, and network radio commercial activity. Reports include the position, length, estimated cost and advertised brand of all announcements broadcast in a given week. BAR reports help analyze competitive spending and scheduling patterns.
One of twelve months in a calendar year that the broadcast industry segments to standardize billing and scheduling cycles. Each broadcast month begins on a Monday and ends on a Sunday. Broadcasters assign weeks to the month in which Sunday’s date falls. For example, the broadcast week of Monday, May 31 through Sunday, June 6 is the first week of the June broadcast month.
The geographic area that receives a signal from an originating television station.
A method of distributing television signals by means of stations that broadcast signals over channels assigned to specific geographic areas.
Signals transmitted over-the-air for television or radio, for use by the general public.
Standard size newspaper.
A promotion that is printed on a single large sheet of paper, usually on only one side of the paper, as opposed to a tabloid or other off-size newspaper.
A software program that can request, download, cache and display documents available on the World Wide Web. Browsers can be either text-based or graphical. An information retrieval tool. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer are examples of a browser.
The amount of money allocated to each market in an advertising campaign.
When a streaming media player saves portions of a streaming media file until there is enough information for the stream to begin playing.
An edition of a print publication that is available earlier than other editions. Usually,. This is the early edition of a large circulation newspaper.
Software that enables users to log into e-mail, usenet and chat groups via modem.
A large, permanent or rotary advertising structure. Common sizes are 14’x48’, 20’x60' and 10’6”x36’. Sometimes called Painted Bulletin, copy may be painted directly on the surface, posted using printed paper, or may be printed (either fully or partially) on a flexible vinyl covering which is then attached to the structure.
A series of rates from a station. When the station’s schedule is full, a buyer typically chooses a higher rate so spots won’t be bumped. When the station’s schedule is less full, a buyer typically chooses a lower rate because spots probably won’t be bumped.
Placing an ad between other ads in a print publication, so that readers are less likely to see it.
A pattern where heavy advertising has been concentrated over a short period. For example, one week’s advertising runs during a four day period.
Advertising posters positioned as an integral part of a bench or freestanding covered structure, often located at a bus stop.
A publication dealing with management, manufacturing, sales or operation of industries or some specific industry, occupation or profession, published to interest and assist persons actively engaged in the field it covers.
Advertising directed to other businesses, rather than to consumers.
Businesses whose major customers are consumers.
An interactive online advertisement in the form of a small graphic image that typically resides in the margin of a web page. Buttons are typically 88 x 31 pixels. The same button is often recurring for every page view on a particular site. Affiliate programs and sponsorships often use buttons to drive traffic.
A list of scheduled items purchased to run over specified flight dates, including scheduled times, days, quantity and spot distribution.
The individual responsible for placing advertising.
The dates, either daily or weekly, within which a media schedule will run (air).
A firm primarily engaged in purchasing media.
The classification of counties based on Census household counts and metropolitan proximity. “C” counties are counties not defined as A or B counties that have more than 20,000 households or are in Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas or Metropolitan Statistical Areas with more than 20,000 households. The combined counties contain 15% of United States housholds.
A method of distributing television signals by means of coaxial or fiber optic cables. Cable subscribers can receive a wide variety of cable television channels, and some cable systems enable subscribers to both receive and send information by means of the cable connection between the cable system office and individual households. Some cable television services are even including telephone connection capabilities as an option available to subscribers. Firms usually provide service to subscribers for a monthly fee. Benefits of cable television include remote television station reception, a clear picture, and/or special programming.
Equipment in the homes of cable subscribers used to convert cable signals to normal TV channels. Sophisticated “addressable” cable converters also allow cable operators to activate, disconnect or unscramble the signal received by a subscriber.
A device that permits one-way or two-way high speed data communication over a cable television system for purposes such as Internet access.
Television programming suppliers that are associated with cable systems in a market.
Programming originated by cable television exclusive of broadcast signals.
Percentage of TV households that are able to receive cable TV.
The proportion of cable subscriber homes to all television homes in an area. This figure is expressed as a percentage. For example, if cable television is in 350,000 households in a market, and the number of TV households in the same market is 450,000, the cable penetration is 77.7%. Cable Penetration = Cable TV Households / Total TV Households.
The local operation that distributes cable TV channels, usually over a combination of fiber optic and coaxial wires, to subscribing households.
The person or company that owns and maintains and is responsible for the cable television system(s) in one or more communities.
Programming carried on cable television exclusive of broadcasting signals.
To store pages, images, or other items, on a local server or user’s computer to speed the rate at which web pages load. Ads, like other images, are cached unless some sort of cache-busting technique is used. When ads are cached, they will be served but will not be counted by an ad server. This can lead ad servers to under count the number of times a page is viewed, and this can in turn skew monitoring techniques.
The process of blocking the caching of certain files to guarantee new delivery from the external server for each page view. Cache busting is necessary for the successful execution on online advertising.
The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or a proxy server's cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.
The process of copying a web element (page or ad) for later reuse. On the web, this copying is normally done in two places: in the user's browser and on proxy servers. When a user makes a request for a web element, the browser looks into it own cache for the element; then a proxy, if any; followed by the intended server. Caching is done to reduce redundant network traffic, resulting in increased overall efficiency of the Internet.
Letters assigned to broadcast stations by the FCC, by which stations identify themselves. In general, stations east of the Mississippi have call letters beginning with W, and those west of the Mississippi have call letters beginning with K.
The entire advertising effort conducted within a predetermined time frame, usually driven by a set of advertising goals. A campaign includes criteria such as media vehicle, markets, demos, dayparts, flight dates and spot lengths.
Free-standing displays located on college campuses in selected markets.
An advertisement in or on a transit vehicle such as a bus, subway, or commuter train car.
Media rates published by a broadcast station or print publication on a “rate card”. This is typically the highest rate charged by a vehicle.
A discount granted by the media vendor to an advertiser for prompt payment, usually two percent of the net amount.
A number indicating a product category’s strength or weakness in a particular geographic area that helps determine brand sales potential. Similar to BDI, CDI is an index of category sales volume per capita for a particular area, as compared to the national category sales volume per capita. CDI = (% of category sales in market area / % of US population in market area) x 100.
The intersection of a row and column in a computer table or spreadsheet.
A complete count of a population or universe. In survey research, a representative sample of respondents is normally interviewed because this is far less costly, while providing results with an acceptable level of accuracy.
A coherent urban area ignoring political boundaries of over 100,000 persons.
The facing pages in a publication’s exact center, in which copy can run across the gutter. Advertising sold in this space usually carries a premium price.
1) A frequency band assigned by the FCC for AM, FM or TV transmission. Each broadcast television station is permitted to operate on only one channel. Channels are assigned geographically to minimize interference between stations. 2) A “channel” is also a web site that automatically delivers information to the user’s computer at times specified by the user. Any web site can be a channel.
The number of channels or signals available to subscribers of a cable television system for current or future use. While the FCC has set certain minimum standards, the number of channels and the services available is normally established by agreement between the franchising authority and the cable system.
The process of selecting individual unit locations to maximize out-of-home advertising objectives.
Online interactive communication between two or more people on the web. On can "talk" in real time with other people in a chat room, but the words are typed instead of spoken.
An area online where you can chat with other people in real time.
The standard method of scheduling programs in prime time by offering different programs in the same time period every night. This is opposite of ‘strip” programming, in which the same series airs different episodes in the same time period every day. Strip program scheduling is the prevailing form for all other dayparts except prime time.
Copy of a publication sent to an advertiser or an advertising agency for verification of advertising insertion.
Turnover of cable subscribers as a result of disconnects and/or new customers.
1) In print, the total number of issue copies sold through all channels of distribution (i.e., subscription, newsstand, bulk). 2) In outdoor, the total number of people who have a reasonable opportunity to see a billboard or poster. 3) In TV, the number of television households or individuals that tune to a broadcast signal or cable signal during a day or week. This term is sometimes used for broadcast, but the term “audience” is used more frequently.
Framed Posters on streetside of phone booth kiosks with visibility to vehicles and pedestrians.
A measure used in advertising surveys that refers to the proportion of respondents who say they saw or heard an advertisement or a particular form of advertising.
Advertising arranged in categories and set in small type. Print advertising that is limited to certain classes of goods and services, and usually limited in size and content.
Classified advertising that has some of the characteristics of display advertising, such as larger size, headlines, and illustrations.
An affiliated broadcast station or cable system’s pledge to carry a specific broadcast or cable network program. Advertisers are attracted to network programs as an advertising vehicle partly by the number of stations or cable outlets providing clearance.
1) The activation of a hyperlink using a mouse or other input device. 2) The action of following a hyperlink within an advertisement or editorial content, to another web site or another page or frame within the web site. An Internet term used to measure the success a web site has in persuading a user to go to another site.
The action of clicking on an element within an ad and having another file displayed on the user’s screen, normally below or above the initial ad. Click down ads allow the user to stay on the same web page and provide the advertiser a larger pallet to communicate their message.
An Internet term indicating the number of times which an advertisement banner was clicked on at a web site.
A click stream is the sequence of clicks or pages requested as a visitor explores a web site. The electronic path a user takes while navigating from site to site, and from page to page within a site.
The percentage of clicks on a link. This is usually a percentage based on the total number of clicks divided by the number of impressions that an advertisement has received. A typical CTR is 0.5% (1 in 200). The click-through rate of an advertising creative is one measure of its effectiveness.
When users click on a banner or text link, the click-through URL is the new destination to which they are directed.
The process of counting and auditing the clicks for a campaign. Click tracking can be done by a different entity than that which serves the creative.
Similar to click down or click. But more commonly, click-withins are ads that allow the user to “drill down” and click, while remaining in the advertisement, not leaving the site on which they are residing.
1) Metric which measures the reaction of a user to an Internet ad. There are three types of clicks: click-throughs; in-unit clicks; and mouseovers. 2) The opportunity for a user to download another file by clicking on an advertisement, as recorded by the server. 3) The result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or key word that links to the advertiser’s intended web site, or another page or frame within the web site.
The ad agency’s term for the advertiser it represents. The company whose spots or ads run in a media schedule.
1) A discount the agency provides either in addition to the agency commission or in lieu of it. 2) A discount the station gives the advertiser when the advertiser schedules the advertising.
One of two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods – server-initiated and client-initiated. Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user's browser to make requests, format and re-direct content. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher's ad server or third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process.
Total number of issue copies sold through all channels of distribution (i.e., subscription, newsstand, bulk).
The order of pages that people are visiting on the site. It is used to indicate what elements of a site are effective, and which are not.
Term used to measure the number of users who clicked on a specific Internet advertisement or link.
The number of click-throughs per ad impression, expressed as a percentage.
An organization that clips advertisements from print media to help check print advertising.
Visual captioning on a television screen for the hearing impaired that superimposes subtitles on programs.
Television which does not go out over-the-air and into homes.
The day final copy and other advertising materials must be at the vehicle in order to appear in a specific issue or time slot.
1) A group of contiguous counties combined to achieve minimum reporting sample size. 2) Grouping several commercials together during one break. 3) In statistical terms, a group of statistical population. Alternatively, a cluster can be a classification of demographically similar geographic areas into one or more homogeneous groups. Each group represents distinctive lifestyle patterns, and offers a basis for segmenting the market.
An analytical technique that arranges research data into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive groups (or clusters) where the contents of each cluster are similar to each other, but different to the other clusters in the analysis. It is a body of statistical techniques concerned with developing natural groupings of objects based on the relationships of the variables describing the objects.
A type of probability sampling where a population of interest is divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive sub-groups (or clusters) and a sample of clusters is selected. From the selected clusters, a sample of units is drawn. In a single-stage cluster sample, every element in that cluster is surveyed. In multi-stage cluster samples, not every element is surveyed. An example of a cluster is a block group.
1) The high number of non-program elements (i.e., commercials, billboards, public service announcements, station promos, network identification, etc.) that creates a crowded commercial environment where an ad can get lost. 2) The extent to which multiple messages compete for the consumers’ limited attention. It often is used to indicate multiple competing messages in one medium (such as television) or place. 3) The condition that exists when many ads or commercials are placed too closely together in space or time.
Transmission line for television and radio signals used in cable television systems. A coaxial cable is capable of carrying many TV or radio signals simultaneously.
Short for compressor/decompressor. Codecs are computer algorithms that are used to compress the size of audio, video, and image files. Because these compressed files are much smaller , they do not require as much bandwidth when they are streamed or stored on a computer. The same codec that originally compressed the file must be used to decompress and open the file.
A measure of variability (or dispersion) of a distribution and it is equal to the standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean.
A set of alternatives is collectively exhaustive when they include all possibilities.
A common unit of measure by newspapers, whereby ad space is purchased by width, in columns, and the depth, in inches. For example, an ad that is 3 standard columns wide and 5 inches tall (or deep) would be 15 column inches.
A special media pricing arrangement that involves purchasing space or time n more than one vehicle, in a package deal. This is frequently offered where different vehicles share a common owner.
A broadcast advertisement, announcement, spot or message aired on television, radio or cable that is paid for by an advertiser.
Advertising that involves commercial interests rather than advocating a social or political cause.
1) A fee that an agency charges and advertiser for time and effort spent selecting and supervising production work done by another company - a percentage of gross production cost. 2) Compensation paid to an agency by a medium for purchases of time or space made on behalf of advertisers. Since the agency saves the medium the expense of direct sales and billing, the medium gives the agency a 15% discount, based on the gross advertising rate billed to the advertiser.
CGI's are used to allow a user to pass data to a web server, most commonly in a web-based form. Specifically, CGI scripts are used with forms such as pull-down menus or text-entry areas with an accompanying submit button. The input from the form is processed by a program (the CGI script itself) on a remote web server.
The FCC’s class of transmission systems, such as telephone, telegraph and certain satellites, open to public use at uniform fees and generally not permitted to control content.
Interface creation scripting programs that create web pages in real-time based on dynamic end user interactive data.
A space vehicle that receives radio and television signals and transmits them back to earth. It is located 22,300 miles above earth in a geosynchronous orbit so that it is stationary in relationship to a fixed position on earth. The cable industry uses communications satellites (commonly called birds) to relay network programming.
TV sets are connected by a wired transmission system provided by a cable operator serving multiple premises.
An advertising appeal that consists of explicitly comparing one product brand to a competitive brand.
The percent distribution of mutually exclusive segments within a given population. For instance, a population of cable subscribers may have an age composition of:
18-24 = 30%
35-49 = 35%
50-64 = 20%
65+ = 15%
A Metropolitan Statistical Area with a population greater than 1 million. An area that contains two or more overlapping and/or interlocking primary metropolitan statistical areas.
Advertising directed at a person who will actually use the product for their own benefit, rather than to a business or a dealer.
Study of how people behave when obtaining, using, and disposing of products and services.
An investigation of the behavior, preferences, attitudes or opinions of a target group sample, collected through a questionnaire.
Advertising woven into editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope.
A method of scheduling advertising to run on an on-going basis and at regular intervals to maintain advertising presence.
A special advertising rate for buying a continuity schedule.
Continuous data is that from a measurement scale where it is permissible to calculate intermediate values.
A consumer panel that involves participation from the same respondents repeatedly over time. This contrasts with an ad hoc panel, where a pre-recruited group of willing respondents are used as and when they are required.
A television term that quantifies the relationship between Demographic GRP’s and Household GRP’s. This relationship can be derived for individual programs or for a schedule of programs. Conversion Factor = Demographic Ratings / Household Ratings.
Circulation limited to people who meet certain criteria. Qualified people usually receive controlled-circulation publications for free.
An information file stored on a user’s computer by a web site as an identifier. Cookies are often used to manage user preferences and personalization on web sites. Netscape originated the concept. Cookies are placed by an external source during a certain event, such as the display of an ad. A cookie can be read only by the server in the domain that stored it. Cookies placed on user’s computers as part of the ad serving process do not collect, store or transmit personally identifiable information. Users can accept or deny cookies, by changing a setting in their browser preferences. The denial of cookies severely limits the customization and interactivity of a user’s online experience.
Software that blocks the placement of cookies on a user’s browser.
An arrangement where the corporate parent shares the advertising budget and schedule review responsibilities with franchisees, local outlets or product partners. For example, Kmart may co-op with a variety of products like Levi’s, Liz Claiborne and Black and Decker. The corporate parent pays a proportion of the advertising costs. Percentage of sales, number of outlets, contractual obligation, etc. determines the amount paid by the co-op partner.
All spoken words or written text in an advertisement.
Research to determine an ad’s effectiveness, based on consumer responses to the ad.
A campaign that promotes a corporation, rather than a product or service sold by that corporation.
The existence of a relationship between two variables, which may or may not be a causal relationship. Correlation on its own does not infer causality.
A statistic that is calculated to determine whether a linear relationship exists between two metric variables, and it takes values between -1 and +1 (depending on the degree of the relationship). A negative value indicates that the variables move in opposite directions, and a positive value indicates that they move in the same direction. A value of 0 indicates that there is no linear relationship, although there may be a non-linear relationship.
A perceptual mapping technique that is based on data where respondents are asked to identify only the attributes that relate to (or correspond with) the subject of the study.
A measure of media vehicle and schedule effectiveness based on a cost comparison of potential or actual audience. Cost efficiency is usually expressed as a cost-per-thousand impressions (CPM).
An advertising campaign pricing model based on paying for direct results. The direct correlation between the action taken and the payment for the advertising that led to the action is desirable to advertisers. This model takes many forms (leads, sales, etc.) and is increasing in popularity online due to the ease of implementation and accounting compared to traditional media. CPA is strongly associated with the “direct response” school of marketing.
An advertising campaign pricing model based on paying only for those ads that experience a click-through. CPC can be considered a measure of direct response, but is not a measure of true action taken by a user.
The cost an advertiser pays to acquire a customer.
A CPA pricing method that typically pays a fixed fee for the acquisition of a customer lead, such as a filled out form or an opt-in email address.
Cost of advertising based on the number of orders received.
The cost of a media vehicle or schedule for reaching one rating point (one percent) of a specified audience. It is another method of comparing the cost efficiency of vehicles. CPP = Media Cost (In Dollars) / GRP’s.
The advertiser's cost to generate one sales transaction. If this is being used in conjunction with a media buy, a cookie can be offered on the content site and read on the advertiser's site after the successful completion of an online sale.
Implying that the audience one is trying to reach is defined by particular demographics or other specific characteristics, such as male golfers age 18-25. The difference between CPM and CPTM is that CPM is for gross impressions, while CPTM is for targeted impressions.
The cost of delivering 1000 gross impressions within a defined population group, by a medium or media schedule. CPM’s are used to compare the efficiencies of media vehicles or schedules. CPM = Media Cost (In Dollars) / Gross Target Impression (In Thousands).
The largest geographic division of a state, each of which has a representative local government.
The classification of counties according to Census household counts and metropolitan proximity. There are four county size classes - A, B, C and D. A counties tend to be highly urbanized, and are located within the 25 largest metros. B counties are tend to be relatively urbanized, and are all counties not included under A with a population over 150,000 or located within a metro with a population over 150,000. C counties tend to be relatively rural,, and are all counties with a population between 40,000 and 150,000 or located within a metro with a population over 40,000. D counties tend to be very rural, and are all counties with a population less than 40,000.
An advertisement that appears on a publication’s cover, usually at a premium cost. First Cover is the outside front cover, Second Cover is the inside front cover, Third Cover is the inside back cover, and Fourth Cover is the outside back cover.
The proportion of a population of interest that has been exposed to a particular advertisement. The use of the word Reach is probably more widespread but both are in common use, often within the same document. Both coverage and reach are often expressed as percentages. Percent Coverage = (Audience / Total Population).
The number of percentage of TV households that could receive a program.
The estimate of the size of the audience relative to the total number of homes or people that can receive this channel. Coverage Area Ratings are used for each individual cable network. The Coverage Area Rating for one cable network can not be compared to another cable network’s coverage area rating or a broadcast network rating. Only total US Ratings or audience projections (estimated number of households or persons) can be compared between/among networks.
A software program which visits virtually all pages of the web to create indexes for search engines. They are more interested in text files than graphic files.
A count of the number of cases that fall into each of several categories when the categories are based on two or more variables considered simultaneously.
The net unduplicated audience of a media plan, either in one medium or a combination of media. Each person is counted only once.
The cume persons audience expressed as a percentage of all persons estimated to be in the specified demographic group.
The percentage of viewers that will see a spot from a campaign N or more times, where N is in a range of numbers. For example, if the range is from 1-10, the distribution shows the percentage of viewers who will see a spot one or more times, two or more times, three or more times, and so on, up to ten or more times.
The cost associated with acquiring a new customer.
Marketing specifically targeted to increasing brand loyalty.
Add-ons to the structure (usually Bulletins) that extend beyond the standard structure area to command greater attention to the message. Can include letters, packages, 3-D elements, fiber optics, etc.
The classification of counties based on Census household counts and metropolitan proximity. “D” counties are all counties not classified as A, B or C counties. They are considered very rural. The combined counties contain 15% of United States households.
The gross number of people, without regard to duplication, exposed to an out-of-home advertising display in one day.
A daily average of the amount of time a selected demographic spent listening to a particular station during a selected daypart. TSL = Quarter Hours In Daypart X 15 X (AQH(00) / Cume(00)).
Research facts that are based on respondents’ answers to questions.
A collection of information organized for rapid search and retrieval. A centrally held collection of data that allows access and manipulation by one or more users.
An ad that runs in a separate ad window associated with a concurrently displayed banner. In normal practice, the content and banner are rendered first and the daughter window appears thereafter.
1) The broadcast day is divided into dayparts or time blocks/periods. The definition of the dayparts may vary between media (radio, television) and time zone. 2) The time segments that divide a radio or TV day for ad scheduling purposes. These segments generally reflect a television station’s programming patterns. The most common dayparts are: prime time, daytime, late night, early morning, total day, sign-on/sign-off, prime access and fringe. 3) Broadcast media divide the day into several standard time periods, each of which is called a “daypart”. Cost of purchasing advertising time on a vehicle varies by the daypart selected.
The daytime hours of programming. For TV, usually 9:00am to 4:00pm EST. For radio, 10:00am to 3:00pm EST.
The half-life or duration of advertising impact over time.
The advertising intended to mislead consumers by falsely making claims, by failure to make full disclosure, or by both.
Usually a cable television channel devoted to a single source for its programming (e.g., a public access channel or a program schedule channel).
The broadcast by a local station of a network program at a time later than its regularly scheduled network time.
The removal of an ad listing as a result of inaction or poor performance.
A group of characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, income, education, marital status, etc, used to identify a group of people and their media and consumer behavior patterns.
Special editions of publications directed to specific audiences.
A statistical procedure that reduces the effects of differences between the demographic characteristics of a sample and the characteristics, either known or estimated, of the universe that the sample represents.
Usually denoted as y, it is a variable that is influenced, to some extent, by one or more other (independent) variables.
A term used by Nielsen Media Research to identify an exclusive geographic area of counties in which the home market television stations hold a dominance of total hours viewed. There are 210 DMA’s in the U.S.
The difference between the mean and an observed value.
A daily record maintained by survey respondents indicating viewing, listening, or reading habits; used by research services for reporting audience composition. In diary-only measured markets, the diary is used to determine audience size.
A collection of channels, typically distributed to subscribers as an add-on package, which are transmitted initially in the form of binary code and used to enhance cable TV service and/or two-way high-speed Internet.
An electronic method of verifying the identity of a person or corporation; it is essentially a digital signature. The certificate is designed to prevent fraud or impersonation in Internet-related transactions.
Advertising creative that is in digital format. Digital creative is easily stored, retrieved and delivered online. Common forms of digital creative include hypertext, HTML files, GIF image files, MPEG video files and AVI audio files.
Information transmitted in discrete pulses rather than as continuous signals. Data is represented by a specific sequence of off-on electrical pulses.
Signatures for electronic documents. They establish identity and, therefore, can be used to establish legal responsibility and the complete authenticity of whatever they are affixed to – in effect, creating a tamper-proof seal.
These lines carry data at high speeds over standard copper telephone wires. DSL is a general term that includes several variations: ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), ranging up to 1.5 Mbps (megabits per second), which is around 30 times faster than through a 56K modem; HDSL (High-bit rate Digital Subscriber Line), ranging up to 2.3 Mbps; and RDSL (Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line), various speeds. In addition, DSL users can receive voice and data simultaneously, so they can use the Internet and make phone calls on the same line at the same time.
Encompasses HDTV, or high-definition television, which is a set of standards for video and audio-signal quality.
A high capacity hard drive that is embedded in a set-top box, which records video programming from a television set. These DVR's are operated by personal video recording software, which enables the viewer to pause, fast forward, and manage all sorts of other functions and special applications.
A robust, dedicated computer at a central location that receives command requests from the television viewer through a video-on-demand application. Once it receives this request, it then instantly broadcasts specific digital video streams to that viewer.
A backlit display located in airports, bus terminals and sports stadiums/arenas.
A mass or quantity promotion, not in an advertising medium, but issued from the advertiser by mail or personal distribution to individual customers or prospects. Also, it is the advertising literature appearing in folders, leaflets, throw-aways, letters, and delivered to prospective customers by mail, salespeople, dealers, or tucked into mailboxes.
A satellite service that delivers its programming directly to a viewer’s home via the use of the viewer’s own earth station (dish), bypassing the local cable system operator. DBS is different from traditional satellite systems because they use a smaller more versatile dish to receive programming at higher frequencies (KU-Band). DirecTV is an example of a DBS service.
The use of the mail delivery system or other delivery services as an advertising media vehicle to send marketing communications material to a prospective consumer.
Sending a promotional message directly to consumers, rather than via a mass medium. Includes methods such as Direct Mail and Telemarketing.
Direct response refers to any advertising that has a built-in call to action to elicit a response within a defined period of time after exposure to the announcement. Phone calls, online orders, mail, email, and visits to a location would be examples of direct response.
Households receive satellite transmission directly without the intermediary of cable transmission.
Advertising that appears in a directory (telephone directory, tourism brochure, etc.). This frequently connotes advertising that consumers intentionally seek.
The percentage of cable subscribers in a given area who discontinued service during a month or other specific time period.
Subscribers who terminated cable service or were terminated because of failure to pay subscription fees.
1) A disagreement between the billing for a media vehicle and what the advertiser ordered. 2) Inadequate commercial protection and/or competitive separation. Usually, a credit or makegood resolves a discrepancy.
1) Print advertising meant to attract attention and communicate easily by using space, illustrations, layout, headlines, and so on, as opposed to classified advertising. In print media, any advertisement other than a classified ad. 2) An ad that stands alone, such as a window sign.
Classified advertising that has some of the characteristics of display advertising, such as larger size, headlines, and illustrations.
A television broadcast station signal not defined by the FCC as “local” to the community in which a cable system is located.
The abbreviation recorded when a respondent lacks the knowledge to provide an answer to a survey question.
The part of an Internet URL (Universal Resource Locator) selected and registered by an individual, business or organization to represent their web presence. Every domain name consists of one top or high-level and one or more lower-level designators. Top-level domains (TLDs) are either generic or geographic. Generic top-level domains include .com (commercial), .net (network), .edu (educational), .org (organizational, public or non-commercial), .gov (governmental), .mil (military), .biz (business), .info (informational), .name (personal), .pro (professional), .aero (air transport and civil aviation), .coop (business cooperatives such as credit unions) and .museum. Geographic domains designate countries of origin, such as .us (United States), .fr (France), .uk (United Kingdom), etc.
A prerecorded general commercial with a blank time span in the middle for inserting a specific advertising message. Generally, an advertiser with basically the same message but occasionally different products uses a donut to save on production costs and guarantee continuity in their commercials.
To receive from a satellite; also, the dish used for reception.
A description of lower socio-economic class lifestyle/demographics.
When an online user accesses more and more pages of the web site, i.e., he or she goes deeper into the content of the site.
Morning and afternoon weekday commuting hours (about 6:00 to 10:00am and 3:00 to 7:00pm), at which times the use of radios increases sharply.
A dual feed is two separate broadcast transmissions for two separate time zones, so that programming times will be uniform for viewers on both coasts. Most cable networks now support dual feed broadcasts.
1) The number or percent of people exposed to more than one advertising message within a media schedule. 2) The number or percent of people in one media vehicle’s audience who are also exposed to another media vehicle (cross duplication). 3) The number of percent of people who are exposed to different issues of the same publication, or different episodes of the same program, over time (self-duplication).
The process by which an ad is inserted into a page in response to a user's request. Dynamic ad placement allows alteration of specific ads placed on a page based on any data available to the placement program. At its simplest, dynamic ad placement allows for multiple ads to be rotated through one or more spaces. In more sophisticated examples, the ad placement could be affected by demographic data or usage history for the current user.
An extended set of HTML commands which are used by web designers to create much greater animation and interactivity than HTML.
An IP address that changes every time a user logs on to the Internet.
Delivery of ads on a rotating, random basis so that users are exposed to different ads, and ads are served in different pages of the site.
The process of selling products or services via the web.
Electronic mail. Text files that are sent from one person to another over the Internet.
An electronic mail address via the Internet.
Advertising campaign distributed via email.
A discounted media rate, based on volume or frequency of media placement.
Communications station used to send or receive electronic signals from or to a satellite. Usually employs one of a variety of dish-type antennae used by television stations and cable operators. Earth stations are also available to the general public for receiving signals.
A pre-determined number of advertising exposures judged necessary to achieve a positive change in awareness, attitude, or purchasing action.
The number or percent of people exposed to an advertising schedule a pre-determined number of times judged necessary to achieve a positive change in awareness, attitude, or purchasing action. This is based on the concept that exposures below the effective frequency have little or no value.
Media effectiveness, found by comparing audience delivery with cost, expressed as cost-per-thousand or as a cost per rating point.
A standardized Poster display structure commonly 6’ x 12’ in overall size with a copy area of 5’ x 11’, placed for exposure to vehicular as well as pedestrian traffic. Frequency used in suburban shopping areas as well as point-of-purchase locales. Also used in urban areas for neighborhood coverage.
Outdoor signs or billboards composed largely of lighting or other electrical components.
An application that allows the viewer to interactively select his/her television programming.
The process of compressing and separating a file into packets so that it can be delivered over a network.
A hardware or software application used to compress audio and video signals for the purpose of streaming.
The scrambling of digital information so that it is unreadable without the use of digital keys.
An exhibit of a product set up at the end of the aisle in a retail store to call attention to a special offering or price.
The last day of an advertising campaign schedule.
The advertising structure which is closest to the approaching line of traffic when more than one structure is built in the same facing.
The actual rate the advertiser pays for commercial time after all discounts have been applied.
The person who actually uses a product, whether or not they are the one who purchased the product.
A type of interactive television technology which allows content producers to send HTML data and graphical "enhancements" through a small part of the regular analog broadcast signal called the Vertical Blanking Interval. These enhancements appear as overlays on the video and allow viewers to click on them if they are watching TV via a special set-top box/software services.
A direct mail advertisement included with another mailed message (such as a bill).
1) To approximate a media vehicle’s future audience delivery. 2) A summary of anticipated media costs for a proposed purchase, often used to authorize advertiser billing and vendor payments.
The projected audience delivery of a future program based on current conditions and past history.
A networking technology that links computers together.
The number of different persons who are exposed to one media vehicle in a combination, and not any of the other vehicles.
Unduplicated readership is the comparison of two or more publications to determine the number of readers who read only a particular publication.
The automatic launch of a browser window containing the advertiser’s content triggered by the visitor exiting a particular web page or web site.
A banner ad which can expand to as large as 468 x 240 after a user clicks on it or after a user moves his/her cursor over the banner.
Any opportunity for a reader, viewer, or listener to see and/or hear and advertising message in a particular media vehicle.
A richer more dynamic successor to HTML utilizing SGML or HTML type tags to structure information. XML is used for transferring data and creating applications on the web.
The area of design made as a cut-out that extends beyond the basic rectangular space of an advertising structure.
An intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders via a valid username and password.
A research method that determines what part of an advertisement consumers look at, by tracking the pattern of their eye movements.
Reference to the number of people who view, or "lay their eyes on", a certain advertisement.
The surface area on an outdoor unit where advertising copy is displayed. The display unit may have more than one face.
The cardinal direction that an outdoor unit faces. As an example, a north facing bulletin would be viewed by vehicles traveling south.
Refers to the number of billboards used for an advertisement.
A form of multivariate analysis that takes a large number of variables or objects and aims to identify a small number of factors that explain the interrelations among the variables or objects.
The percentage of the base rate that a station applies to determine rates for other spot lengths. For example, a TV station may consider 30 second spots as the base rate. They may charge 60% of the cost of a :30 for 10 second spots and 200% of the cost of a :30 for 60 second spots.
The network television hour between 8pm and 9pm EST when programming is supposed to be suitable for viewing by the entire family.
An independent governmental agency established by the Communications Act of 1934 to regulate the broadcasting industry in the U.S. It later assumed authority over cable. The FCC assigns broadcasting frequencies, licenses stations, and oversees interstate communications.
Transmission lines made of thin glass fibers optimized to carry light waves. Light waves can carry information in the same way radio waves carry information. Since the frequency of light is higher than radio, light waves can carry more information than radio waves.
Internet protocol which facilitates transfer of files.
A question in a questionnaire to ensure that respondents meet the required criteria for a subsequent question (or questions) in a survey.
An Internet software tool for locating people on other Internet sites. A finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site. Not all sites allow incoming finger requests.
A security barrier placed between an organization's internal computer network and the Internet. The purpose of a firewall is to keep unauthorized outsiders from tampering with a computer system, thereby increasing a server’s security. A firewall is based on rules which allow and disallow traffic to pass, based on the level of security and filtering a network administrator wishes to employ.
A media vehicle’s promise to offer one advertiser sponsorship rights before making a similar offer to others.
Original programs produced expressly for distribution in syndication, as opposed to network or off-network series who reruns pass into the syndication market.
If the accounting year ends on December 31, the business is on a calendar year. If it ends on some other date, the business is on a fiscal year. At the end of any 12-month period, fiscal or calendar, the business prepares financial statements.
The guaranteed location of a commercial in a particular vehicle.
In outdoor posters, a tear in the paper causing the advertisement to hang loose. When the wind blows, the poster can flap back and forth like a flag.
Macromedia's vector-based graphics file format which is used to display interactive animations on a web page. This form of rich media technology is available via a plug-in.
The ability to automatically send software upgrades to a set-top box network.
A price charged for advertising space or time that does not include discounts based on the quantity of space or time purchased by the advertiser.
The dates within which a media schedule will run (air).
The goal amounts assigned to the specific days or weeks in a flight.
The number of days or the number of weeks in a campaign, depending on the buying period.
The sum of the amounts assigned to specific days or weeks in a flight.
A method of scheduling advertising characterized by periods of activity separated by periods of inactivity. Any period of time where the message is appearing is called a flight, and any period of message inactivity is called a hiatus.
An ad or ads that appear within the main browser window on top of the web page’s normal content, thereby appearing to “float” over the top of the page.
A scheduling tool that visually plots the elements of an advertising campaign across a period of time.
1) Consumer Behavior Definition: A method of gathering qualitative data on the preferences and beliefs of consumers through group interaction and discussion usually focused on a specific topic or product. This discussion is guided by a skilled moderator who does not influence the outcome, but ensures that all the subject areas are discussed by the group, and the views of the participants are as clear as possible. 2) Marketing Research Definition: A personal interview conducted among a small number of individuals simultaneously; the interview relies more on group discussion than on a series of directed questions to generate data. It is also called group in-depth interview.
An ad or content that is viewable as soon as the web page arrives. One does not have to scroll down (or sideways) to see it. Since screen resolution can affect what is immediately viewable, it is good to know whether the web site's audience tends to set their resolution at 640 x 480 pixels or at 800 x 600 (or higher).
The geographic area on earth where a satellite signal can be received.
A policy that prevents advertisers from buying advertising space in only one publication of a group of publications owned by the same company. A typical forced combination requires advertisers to buy space in an evening newspaper when they buy space in a co-owned morning newspaper.
The type of music or talk that a radio station broadcasts, such as “Contemporary Hits” or “News”.
An advertising page that uses three colors (and/or combination of these colors) plus black and white.
Print advertising space that covers less than a full page.
An outdoor advertising showing of fewer than 25 posters.
The increasing number of audience subdivisions which, together, constitute total TV usage. Fragmentation can result from growth in the number of program alternatives (like broadcast and cable channels), from an increase in the number of specific interests by which those alternatives appeal, or from other uses of the TV set-VCR/DVD recording and playback, TiVo, videodisc playback, etc.
Multiple, independent sections used to create a single web page. Each frame is built as a separate HTML file but with one "master" file to control the placement of each section. When a user requests a page with frames, several files will be displayed as panes. Sites using frames report one page request with several panes as multiple page requests.
The number of frames of video displayed during a given time. The higher the frame rate, the more high-quality the image will be.
A contract between state and/or local government and a cable television service awarding the right to install coaxial or fiber optic cable in a community.
A geographic area awarded to a cable company as a result of its application to the local government for such area. The cable company can seek paying subscribers in that area.
An ad position in a periodic publication (e.g., back cover) to which an advertiser is given a permanent or long-term right of use.
Circulation at no charge to the readers. Publications with free circulation often also have controlled circulation.
A preprinted advertising message inserted, but no bound, into print media (usually newspapers).
1) The average number of times an individual (or household) sees or hears an advertising message, an advertising campaign, or a specific media vehicle. Average Frequency = Gross Impressions(000) / Net Reach(000) or GRP’s / Net Reach %. 2) The period of issuance of a publication, e.g., daily, monthly, weekly, etc. 3) The position of a television or radio station’s broadcast signal within the electromagnetic spectrum.
A restriction on the amount of times a specific visitor is shown a particular advertisement.
A special advertising rate for buying a continuity schedule.
Quantifies the number of people (or homes) exposed to a schedule based on the exact number of times that they have seen the media vehicle. The number of people reached at each frequency level is expressed as a percentage of the population base.
A set of numbers giving the relative value of different positions in the frequency distribution (i.e., of different number of insertions seen).
Television time periods that precede and follow Prime Time, usually 4:00pm to 7:30pm and after 11:30pm EST. News programming is not usually considered fringe time.
An ad that is surrounded by reading matter in a newspaper, making it more likely consumers will read the ad. This is a highly desirable location for an ad.
An agency that handles all aspects of the advertising process, including planning, design, production, and placement. Today, full-service generally suggests that the agency also handles other aspects of marketing communication, such as public relations, sales promotion, and direct marketing.
Specially commissioned Transit display in which the entire bus vehicle is covered with the advertising design, including windows, through which passengers have visibility due to special material.
Double or triple-size pages, generally in magazines, that fold out into a large advertisement.
A magazine with universal appeal, as opposed to a magazine targeted at a specific, narrow audience.
An approach to preparing advertising messages that concentrates on the customer benefits that apply to all brands in a product category, as opposed to benefits that are unique to specific brands.
This term refers to segmentation systems that are based on the demographic characteristics of very small geographical areas such as Census block groups or ZIP codes. Typically, these systems work with detailed Census data that sort geographic units into statistically homogeneous “clusters”. This permits all forms of geo-coded marketing or media data to be linked, profiled, and evaluated across the cluster groups.
Method of providing audience specifics as they relate to outdoor locations, both geographically and demographically. Enables plant Operators to specify those locations which most efficiently reach target audiences by age, sex, income, brand preference and purchase behavior profiles. Also, the system can plot store locations such as banks, hospitals, restaurants, car dealerships and more.
An advertisement targeted at a specific geographical region, area or location.
A specific region defined with a specific goal in mind (e.g., DMA, MSA) based on population marketing, etc.
A factor (usually an Index) assigned to defined areas based on “performance” above/below the norm.
A collective term referring to the types of geographic areas used by the Census Bureau in its data collection and tabulation operations, including their structure , designations, and relationships to one another.
One gigabyte equals 1000 megabytes.
The use of advertising appeals, messages, art, copy, photographs, stories and video and film segments on a global scale.
Highly accurate location system which precisely pinpoints structures in terms of exact latitude and longitude using hand-held instruments that communicate with orbiting satellites.
The wireless telephone standard in Europe.
A set of targets that a media campaign aims to achieve, including budget, demos, reach and frequency.
Allowances for older cable systems to continue operating for a time under conditions that were permitted at the time these businesses were established, even though new businesses are subject to other regulations.
A common graphics format that can be displayed on almost all web browsers. GIFs typically display in 256 colors and have built-in compression. Static or animated GIF images are the most common form of banner creative.
A way of enabling users to interact with the computer using visual icons and a mouse rather than a command-like prompt/interpreter.
Advertising that promotes a product or service’s ability to help or , more likely, not hurt the environment.
A broadcast media rate card that lists rates on a grid, according to the time periods that might be selected for the ad.
The total number of persons or households reached by multiple media in a schedule or a campaign, without regard to duplication. An individual is counted twice in Gross Audience if he/she appears in the audience of two vehicles within the schedule. Subtract duplicated audience members in order to find net audience. In Print: RPC (Readers Per Copy) x Magazine Circulation.
The total dollar amount for advertising, not counting any deductions for tax, commission, or additional client discounts.
The number of individuals or households delivered by an advertisement or a media schedule, generally measured in thousands (000). Two gross impressions could mean that the same person was in the audience on two occasions, or that two different people had been exposed only once. Gross Impressions = Average Audience X Number of Spots (Insertions).
A unit of measurement of audience size, it is the sum of all rating points achieved in a given advertising schedule. One rating point equals 1% of the audience for the coverage base of a given medium. Although synonymous with TRPs (Target Rating Points), GRP’s generally refer to a “household” base and TRP’s generally refer to a “target” base. GRP = Reach% X Average Frequency OR Average Rating x Number of Spots.
The difference between a schedule’s accumulated GRP’s and a schedule’s GRP target.
The number of GRP’s set for a schedule’s goal.
Subscriptions in quantities to corporations, institutions, subsidiary companies or branch offices under special conditions specified in the rules.
The inside page margins next to a publication’s binding.
A media rate that comes with a guarantee that the publication will achieve a certain circulation.
Transit car cards that appear in half the buses or transit cars of a system.
An outdoor advertising showing of 50 posters.
The monthly Hall's Magazine Reports service provides an analysis of the editorial content of approximately 75 consumer magazines.
When a web page is prevented from loading completely or at all due to a technical difficulty at the server end or at the user end. Online advertising that is poorly served may have the tendency to hand pages, thus irritating the user and publisher alike.
A cable advertising company that airs the same advertisers at the same time on multiple systems and networks.
A group of commercials that must run in the same order every time it is aired.
Physical components such as electronic equipment of the cable industry (dishes, satellites, coaxial cable) or the computer industry (monitor, hard drives, printers).
A television transmission protocol that transmits twice the current standards of scan lines (1125 vs. 525) to form pictures of enhanced definition and tonal quality. HDTV provides five channels of CD-quality digital surround-sound and about five times more picture information (picture elements, or pixels) than conventional, analog television.
That member of the household who is responsible for the household having that accommodation, either by owning, renting or having it rent-free. Where two or more people share this responsibility, the researcher should specify who to include in the study.
Each cable TV system has a primary site that receives or originates video information and then distributes it to subscribing households. This primary site is the system’s “head-end”, which is equipped with an earth dish, antennae, amplifier, scramblers, etc. When the area served by a cable system is too large to be handled from the headend without significant loss in signal quality, additional sites called “hubs” are needed. Video information is sent from the headend to one or more hubs via microwave transmissions. The signals received at the hub(s) are then placed on coaxial cable and distributed to homes located near the hub.
A way to measure a user's unique identity. This measure uses deduction or inference based on a rule or algorithm which is valid for that server. For example, the combination of IP address and user agent can be used to identify a user in some cases. If a server receives a new request from the same client within 30 minutes, it is inferred that a new request comes from the same user and the time since the last page request was spent viewing the last page.
A scheduled period during which there is no advertising activity.
Posters affixed to the upper portion of the rear end of buses; copy area 15-1/2” high x 63’ wide.
A vertical bar chart where the height of the bars represents the data.
A pull-down menu which displays the sites you've recently visited so you can return to the site instantly or view your latest session. The same mechanism makes it possible for servers to track where you were before visiting a particular site.
The number of times a program or item of data has been accessed. For example, each time a user downloads a home page on the web, that is considered one hit to that web site. Hits also refer to the number of page and/or graphic files requested by the visitor. Webmasters use hits to measure their servers’ workload.
The percent of a program’s audience that watched or listened to the immediately preceding program on the same station.
The market where a station’s broadcast signal originates.
The page designated as the main point of entry of a web site (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the Internet. Typically, it welcomes you and introduces the purpose of the site, or the organization sponsoring it, and then provides links to other pages within the site.
Homes that are connected or could be connected to a local cable system because the cables are in the immediate area.
The percentage of total television homes that are viewing television during a given time period. The sum of the average ratings for a given time period will sometimes be higher than the HUT number because of households viewing multiple programs at the same time. If a household is watching two programs, it is counted toward each program rating but only once toward a HUT number. HUT = (Rating / Share) x 100.
A discount on a media purchase resulting from a promise to advertise over an extended period of time.
An advertising partnership in which several retailers share the cost of a promotion.
The total number of different people listening to or watching a broadcast during the same time period on successive days of the week.
Business or trade publications designed to appeal to people of similar interests or responsibilities in a variety of companies or industries.
The scheduling of broadcast spots at the same time of day on different days of the week.
Any computer on a network that offers services or connectivity to other computers on the network. A host has an IP address associated with it.
Copies purchased by a hotel or motel and distributed free to guests. Copies similarly distributed by restaurants, clubs and transportation companies are included in the same designation. They are included in bulk sales regardless of the number.
Pull-down or pop-up menus often displayed on browsers or search engines that contain new or popular sites.
A self promotional ad a company runs on its media outlets to put unsold inventory to use.
An advertising agency owned and operated by an advertiser, which handles the advertiser’s account.
A company’s own publication.
Residences sharing a common entrance and cooking facilities, so defined by the US Bureau of the Census.
A banner ad using HTML elements, often including interactive forms, instead of (or in addition to) standard graphical elements.
A Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) document stored in a directory on a web server and/or created dynamically at the time of the request for the purpose of satisfying that request. In addition to text, an HTML page may include graphics, video, audio, and other files.
An advertising campaign pricing model based on combining different individual pricing models into one. A CPM/CPA hybrid campaign combines the benefits of branding and direct response into the same campaign. The relative weighting of each individual model is adjustable within the hybrid campaign, and can be modified during the campaign run to maximize ROI.
The foundation of online interactivity. This is the clickable link in text or graphics on a web page that takes you to another place on the same page, another page, or another web site.
The text version of the hyperlink.
The standard file format for internet documents (web pages). A set of codes called markup tags in a plain text (*.txt) file that determine what information is retrieved and how it is rendered by a browser. There are two kinds of markup tags: anchor and format. Anchor tags determine what is retrieved, and format tags determine how it is rendered.
The networking protocol that allows hyperlinks to work.
Station identification during a commercial break in a television or radio program.
A floating frame inserted within a web page which is not bound to the side of a browser’s window.
An outdoor unit with lighting that provides night time illumination of an advertising message, usually from dusk until dawn. Third party proof of illumination is required to qualify for 24 hour circulations.
Promoting the image, or general perception, of a product or service, rather than promoting its functional attributes. Commonly used for differentiating brands of parity products.
A GIF or JPEG image with more than one linking hyperlink. Each hyperlink or hot spot can lead to a different destination page.
A purchase behavior that is assumed to be made without prior planning or thought. Often, it is claimed, impulse buying involves an emotional reaction to the stimulus object (product, packaging, point-of-purchase display, etc.) in addition to the simple acquisition act.
1) Consumer Behavior Definition: A purchase typically made in-store with little or no decision making effort. 2) Retailing Definition: An unplanned purchase by a customer.
A substitute for a missing response that is based on the pattern of other responses from a survey respondent.
A reward given to participants or businesses for taking the time and trouble to co-operate in a marketing research study.
A local broadcast station not affiliated with a national network.
A variable that exerts some influence on another (dependent) variable. Research experiments usually involve some manipulation of independent variables and measurement of dependent variables to investigate the relationship between them.
A comparison between the market composition and the target composition, it is a measure of concentration or likelihood. It tells us whether a specific group is more or less likely to meet a given criteria. An index is one of the most commonly used tools in our business. It quantifies numerically the relationship of two concepts.
An outdoor location that has room for only one billboard.
The use of a program-length time period to advertise products and services. This approach often includes a direct response offer to sell the advertised items directly to the public.
People who read a magazine or newspaper in their own home.
The portion of a circulation coverage figure generated by people living within the specified market boundary as a percentage of the market’s population.
A commercial that airs within a program, as opposed to airing between two programs.
1) A one-page or multi-page print advertisement distributed with, but not necessarily bound into, a publication. 2) An advertisement enclosed with bills or letters.
1) In print, one line in an insertion order that specifies one advertisement’s size, rate, frequency, and so on. 2) In cable, the actual playing of a commercial at the headend facility. When the insertion equipment receives a cue tone from the satellite, it inserts the cut into the broadcast.
An agency or advertiser’s authorization for a publisher to run a specific ad in a specific print publication on a certain date at a specified price.
A method of users communicating one-to-one or in groups over the standard IP protocol. Users can assemble "buddy lists" and chat with friends, family and colleagues.
Advertising to promote an institution or organization, rather than a product or service, in order to create public support and goodwill.
1) The number of completed interviews or diaries actually used in a research survey to create audiences. 2) In a research sample, the number of households or persons supplying usable information for reports or special tabulations. In-tab is usually expressed as a percent of the sample supplying usable information on an average day.
High-speed dial-up connections to the Internet over ordinary copper phone wires. DSL has in large part replaced ISDN.
Software tools which help the user find information of specific interest to him/her. The user's profile is continually refined and improved based on the user's acceptance or rejection of recommendations over time.
All forms of online, wireless and interactive television advertising, including banners, sponsorships, e-mail, keyword searches, referrals, slotting fees, classified ads and interactive television commercials.
An advertising/marketing agency offering a mix of web design/development, Internet advertising/marketing, or e-business/e-commerce consulting.
Cable systems that have the technical ability to let subscribers communicate directly with a computer at the system headend from their television sets, using special converters and regular cable lines. VoD is a form of interactive cable.
A digital creative that uses a hyperlink to transfer the user to another website or open a separate interactive window.
The standard ad unit sizes endorsed by IAB.
The online, Internet, or web environment is the primary interactive media for advertising. It is dubbed interactive because the user, or advertising target, can typically interact with the content and advertising.
Any technology that allows for two-way communication between the audience and the service provider (such as the broadcaster, cable operator, set-top box manufacturer) via standard or enhanced television appliance.
The joining of several cable systems in one geographic area to facilitate sales of local or regional advertising.
Advertising a product or service in a country other than where it originates.
1) A worldwide system of computer networks providing reliable and redundant connectivity between disparate computers and systems by using common transport and data protocols. 2) The world’s largest Wide Area Network (WAN). 3) General term used to describe a global network of computes used to transmit information. The most familiar aspect of the Internet is the World Wide Web, which consists of various interlinked web sites. The Internet was originally developed by the U.S. military as a backup communications system in case of nuclear war. In the early 1990’s, the Internet was made publicly available and its usage has since grown exponentially.
The numerical address for any system connect to the Internet. Every system on the Internet has an IP assigned to it. The format is # #. # #. # #. # # with each number ranging from 0 through 255 (e.g., 184.108.40.206).
1) A facility that allows people to chat in real time. The chats, or forums, are typed remarks, and they can be either public or private; 2) A protocol that allows users to converse with others in real time. IRC is structured as a network of servers, each of which accepts connections from client programs.
An organization that provides access to the Internet. An ISP can be a commercial provider, a corporate computer network, a school, college, university, or the government.
Meaning “in-between;” an advertisement that appears in a separate browser window while the user waits for a web page to load.
A network based on TCP/IP protocols that belongs to an organization, usually a corporation, and is accessible only by the organization's members, employees or others with authorization.
A measurement of a user-initiated action of responding to an ad element which generally causes an intra-site redirect or content change. In-unit clicks are usually tracked via a 302 redirect.
Commercial spots available on a station. A station or network’s unsold time that is available to advertisers.
A document requesting payment for an order. The document shows the items purchased, the price and quantity, the billing date, and the amount owed.
An in-store product display situated away from competing products, typically in the middle or at the end of an aisle.
A print ad that is completely surrounded by editorial material, or a broadcast ad surrounded by program content, with no adjoining advertisements to compete for audience attention.
An object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems, Java supports animation and real-time information transfer. Web pages that have Java applets embedded are recognized by Java supported web browsers.
Easily compressed graphics format that displays photographic as well as graphic images. JPEG is a newer format than GIF.
Microsite which is reached via click-through from button or banner ad. The jump page itself can list several topics, which are linked to either the advertiser’s site or the publisher’s site.
A print advertisement prepared for a small page size, but run in a publication with a larger page size. Editorial matter fills the extra space. Similarly, a “Digest Unit” is a Reader’s Digest-size advertising page that appears in a larger magazine.
A premium used to induce a consumer to take some action, such as completing a survey or trying a product.
A word or phrase used to focus an online search and to target advertising. Advertisers can purchase keywords on search engines to guarantee that their website information is displayed prominently and/or display an associated creative.
Posters affixed to the sides of public buses with a copy area of 27’ high x 141’ wide.
The amount of time between making an online request or command and receiving a response. A primary goal of advertising network efficiency is to minimize lag time.
The specific web page that a visitor ultimately reaches after clicking an advertisement. Often, this page is optimized for a specific keyword term or phrase.
A spot that runs outside the time period specified because the program ordered runs late. This is usually caused by sports or significant political events.
1) Time it takes for a data packet to move across a network connection; 2) Visible delay between request and display of content and ad. Latency sometimes leads to the user leaving the site prior to the opportunity to see. In streaming media, latency can create stream degradation if it causes the packets, which must be received and played in order, to arrive out of order.
A program that immediately precedes another program on the same station or network.
The following program on the same station or network.
Channels made available on cable systems, usually by local franchising authorities, for leasing to members of the public at posted rates, on a common carrier basis. A form of paid public access.
A term that originally referred to the attitudes, interests and opinions of research participants, but it can be used to refer to differences in behavior that relate to social values.
Separating consumers into groups, based on their hobbies, interests, and other aspects of their lifestyles.
The increase in basic cable penetration brought about by the introduction of a new service or program (like Pay TV).
In print, the number of agate lines used for an advertisement or for a series of advertisements. This measurement is becoming obsolete as the use of agate-line measurements declines.
A chart where a series of data points are connected by a continuous line.
The print advertising rate established by the number of agate lines of space used. This measurement is becoming obsolete as the use of agate-line measurements declines.
1) A method for connecting computer files to share information from one source in two or more computer programs. Changes made to the source file automatically appear in the linked files. 2) An electronic connection between two web sites. When clicked on, a link brings you to another web page, or to another place on the same page. 3) Connections between one page or site on the web and another. Links are mostly identified in highlighted and/or underlined text.
The text that is contained within a link.
The total geographic area covered by a radio station’s signal, usually divided into primary and secondary areas.
A mailing list comprised of email addresses.
A program that automatically sends email to a list of subscribers or listserv.
A term referring to a media test translation procedure in which advertising pressure within the test area replicates the advertising pressure generated in the average market. It assumes that the test area is truly representative of the total U.S. Accordingly, test results occurring in this area are regarded as representative of what will happen on a national level.
A program broadcast as it happens, in “real time”, as opposed to a prerecorded broadcast.
A live feed is the use of a single broadcast transmission for each time zone. This means that programming that airs in primetime on the East coast at 8PM, will air on the West coast at 5PM.
Usually used with up-load or down-load, it means to transfer files or software from one computer or server to another computer or server. In other words, it is the movement of information online.
A group of computers connected together (a network) which are at one physical location.
Commercials marketed to a local sales area (vs. national) and placed by local or regional advertisers.
An advertising rate charged to a local advertiser, typically a retailer, by local media and publications, as distinguished from a national rate that is charged to a national advertiser, typically a manufacturer.
A file that keeps track of network connections.
A file that records transactions that have occurred on the web server. Some of the types of data which are collected are: date/time stamp, URL served, IP address of requestor, status code of request, user agent string, previous URL of requestor, etc. Use of the extended log file format is preferable.
The identification or name used to access a computer, network or site.
A brand name, publication title, or the like, presented in a special lettering style or typeface and used in the manner of a trademark.
Advertising which supplies paperwork for the purpose of soliciting a purchase made through the mail.
One where respondents are asked to complete a questionnaire (unaided) and return it to the sender either by post or e-mail. The respondents may or may not be recruited in advance of the survey.
The rescheduling of an ad or commercial by an advertising media operator when it has been incorrectly printed, broadcast, or distributed, when it has been unavoidably cancelled or preempted, or when the impressions bought were under-delivered.
Backlit advertising structure located at strategic points in shopping malls; usually two or three-sided, includes directory format.
Those stations whose signals must be carried by cable systems according to the FCC rules. In general, these include all local stations which request carriage, plus specialty stations and outside stations that are significantly viewed off-air in the cable community.
A geographic area defined by a marketing research company.
Positioning refers to the customer’s perceptions of the place a product or brand occupies in a market segment. In some markets, a position is achieved by associating the benefits of a brand with the needs or life style of the segments. More often, positioning involves the differentiation of the company’s offering from the competition by making or implying a comparison in terms of specific attributes.
A breakdown of a market area according to income, demography, and lifestyle.
The systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data with respect to a particular market, where market refers to a specific customer group in a specific geographic area.
The process of subdividing a market into distinct subsets of customers that behave in the same way or have similar needs. Each subset may conceivably be chosen as a market target to be reached with a different marketing strategy. The process begins with a basis of segmentation – a product specific factor that reflects differences in customers’ requirements or responsiveness to marketing variables (possibilities are purchase behavior, usage, benefits sought, intentions, preference, or loyalty, etc.). Segment descriptors are then chosen, based on their ability to identify segments, to account for variance in the segmentation basis, and to suggest competitive strategy implications (examples of descriptors are demographics, geography, psychographics, customer size, industry, etc.). To be of strategic value, the resulting segments must be measurable, accessible, sufficiently different to justify a meaningful variation in strategy, substantial, and durable.
1) Geography Definition: A proportion of total sales in a market obtained by a given facility or chain. 2) Strategic Marketing Definition: The proportion of total quantity or dollar sales in a market that is held by each of the competitors. The market can be defined as broadly as the industry, or all substitutes, or as narrowly as a specific market segment. The choice of market depends on which level gives the best insight into competitive position.
The mix of controllable marketing variables that the firm uses to pursue the desired level of sales in the target market. The most common classification of these factors is the four-factor classification called the “Four P’s” – price, product, promotion, and place (or distribution). Optimization of the marketing mix is achieved by assigning the amount of the marketing budget t be spent on each element of the marketing mix so as to maximize the total contribution. Contribution may be measured in terms of sales or profits or in terms of any other organizational goals.
The determination of an optimal marketing mix is often aided by models that take into account the market response to the various marketing mix elements and their interactions. These models include econometric market response models to the marketing mix variables of the firm (and its competitors) as well as specialized models such as Advisor and BRANDAID, microsimulation models, various optimization models and customized applications of the analytic hierarchy process and other resource allocation modes.
A statement (implicit or explicit) of how a brand or product line will achieve its objectives. The strategy provides decisions and direction regarding variables such as the segmentation of the market, identification of the target market, positioning, marketing mix elements, an expenditures. A marketing strategy is usually an integral part of a business strategy that provides a broad direction to all functions.
A service to newspapers that supplies pictures and drawings for use in advertisements. The service may offer entire prepared advertisements. Mat is slang for matrix.
The cost of an agate line of advertising space at the highest milline rate. This measurement is becoming obsolete as the use of agate-line measurements declines.
A term referring to mobile commerce which is the ability to conduct monetary transactions via a mobile device, such as a WAP-enabled cell phone.
This measure represents an arithmetic average of a set of numbers. It is derived by dividing the sum of a group of numerical items by the total number of items in that group. For example, mean family income is obtained by dividing the total of all income reported by people in families, by the total number of families.
A camera-ready paste-up of artwork that includes type, photography, and artwork or line art all on one piece of artboard.
The vehicles used to convey advertising messages to the public. Traditional advertising media include newspapers, magazines, billboards, radio and television. Digital interactive advertising media started with the Internet, accessed at an indoor computer, but is quickly spreading to television, cellular devices and outdoor locations. Many other non-traditional media are being used within an advertising campaign, including Place-Based media (in-store), Event-Based Media (stadium signage), etc.
The purchase of a specific amount of time or space in an advertising media vehicle.
An individual working directly for an advertiser, or for an advertising agency, charged with the responsibility of purchasing advertising space or time.
The advertising agency function that involves negotiating with the salespeople of various advertising media in order to obtain needed time and space for advertising agency clients at the most favorable prices.
An organization that specializes in buying media time and space for advertisers. Some media buying services also engage in media planning activities for their clients.
Technique of scheduling media that involves buying space in one medium only, and developing strength through concentration.
Technique of scheduling media that involves buying a large amount of space in one medium, and shifting to another medium after achieving optimum coverage and frequency.
The use of two or more different media forms in the same advertising plan.
The process of quantitatively estimated audience behavior. Modeling is usually contrasted with the process of direct measurement in which meters, diaries, survey or coincidentals are used to measure the behavior. Typically, when viewing behavior is modeled, a set of measures is adjusted to represent a geographic area, demographic category or consumer target for which there is no direct measurement. Modeling in the broader sense may include any mathematical technique for combining or imputing data, such as ascription, fusion or weighting.
Files, other than HTML documents, which can be displayed or executed within HTML documents, or in a stand-alone fashion. Examples currently include GIFs, JPEGs, video, audio, Flash objects (SWF), PDF, Java applets, and other objects which can be viewed through a browser or using a "plug-in".
An advertising schedule designed to meet specific marketing objectives, based on extensive media and marketing analysis.
The advertising agency function that involves the determination of advertising objectives, advertising strategies, and advertising tactics relating to the advertising media to be used by specific clients. A media plan includes a statement of objectives, target market definitions, types of advertising media to be used, and the amount of resources to be allocated to each (the media mix), ad a specific time schedule for the use of each media vehicle.
An individual working for the advertiser or advertising agency, charged with the responsibility of designing the media plan
A person or a company that specializes in selling space or time in advertising vehicles to advertisers and advertising agencies.
A specific schedule showing the media vehicles (including dates, positions in the publication or time of day, and size of ad space or duration of commercials) to be used during an advertising campaign.
A plan of action by an advertiser for bringing advertising messages to the attention of consumers through the use of appropriate media.
A segmentation of available media. Examples include Broadcast TV, Cable TV, Radio, Magazines, Newspaper, Internet, Out-of-Home, Cinema, etc.
A specific newspaper, magazine, radio station, television program, outdoor advertising location, edition of Yellow pages, etc. that can be employed to carry advertisements or commercials. For example, The New Yorker magazine is a media vehicle in the magazine category of advertising media.
A measure of the amount of advertising media used in an advertising campaign. It can be expressed in terms of dollar amounts, gross rating points, circulation data, or other means.
A survey company that specializes in Puerto Rican measurements.
The Mediamark study surveys the demographics, product usage and media exposure of all persons 18 and over in the contiguous 48 states. The completed MediaMark sample consists of over 20,000 respondents.
This measure represents the middle value (if n is odd) or the average of the two middle values (if n is even) in an ordered list of data values. The median divides the total frequency distribution into two equal parts; one-half of the cases fall below the median and one-half of the cases exceed the median.
A million bytes.
Promotional activities that media (purchased for advertising) provides free or at a nominal charge.
The value of a network increases geometrically with the number of people who use it.
Any automatic recording device which, when connected to a television set, will monitor the tuning status of that TV set (set on/off, time, duration and channel).
A market that obtains ratings from a sample of television households with a meter attached to the television set to monitor viewing.
A description of the way in which the data is collected for part or all of a research project.
Any standardized measurement used for comparison purposes.
Determined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. The MSA is a geograpjical area with a large population nucleus along with any adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with that nucleus. An area can qualify as an MSA in one of two ways: if it contains a city with a population of at least 50,000; if it contains an “urbanized” area of at least 50,000 and the total metro area population is 100,000 or more.
The practice of concentrating marketing efforts toward relatively small (smaller) pieces of geography or narrow demographic targets.
Multi-page ads accessed via click-through from the initial ad. The user stays on the publisher’s web site, but has access to more information from the advertiser than a standard ad format allows.
A way to compare advertising line rates of newspapers that have different circulations. This measurement is becoming obsolete as the usage of agate lines and advertising lines declines.
The cost of an agate line of advertising at the lowest milline rate. This measurement is becoming obsolete as the usage of agate lines and advertising lines declines.
All stations listed in a market report must achieve the minimum amounts of listening/viewing during a survey.
A truck that is equipped with one or more poster panel units. The trucks can either be parked at specified venues or driven around designated localities.
ISPs dedicated to providing wireless service.
An electronic device or program that enables a computer to transmit data to another computer via telephone lines.
The Mendelsohn Affluent Survey is conducted annually by mail among 33,000 adults living in the contiguous 48 states and estimated to have an annual household income of $70,000+.
1) The fie format that is used to compress and transmit movies or video clips online; 2) Standards set by the Motion Picture Exports Group for video media.
The process by which a user places his/her mouse over a media object, without clicking. The mouse may need to remain still for a specified amount of time to initiate some actions.
A computer file format that compresses audio files by a factor of 12 from a .wav file.
The average of two or more ratings books for households using television (HUT’s).
The use of two or more media in an advertising schedule. Often, a primary medium supports a secondary medium. Most campaigns use several media to try to maximize the overall exposure rate both by reaching many different people, and by reaching the same people more than one time.
A method of encoding a file for delivery over the Internet.
A company which owns and/or operates more than one cable system.
MDS is a method of delivering television signals by microwave transmission to subscriber households. MDS signals can reach only those points that are in direct line of sight and within 15 to 25 miles of the transmitting antenna.
Forms of statistical analysis that are used where there are two or more dependent variables to be analyzed simultaneously.
The accepted abbreviation to indicate no response to a question because the respondent refused to reply, the question did not apply or it was skipped for some reason.
Programs oriented toward specific demographic audiences or limited interest groups, like children’s programming or programs on specific leisure-time activities.
Any advertising that is placed by a company, organization, or individual that operates on a national or regional (multistate) basis. Some of the advertising may be placed directly with local advertising media, but it is likely that this advertising would be part of the nationwide advertising effort of the company, organization, or individual.
A nationally distributed product brand name. may also be distributed regionally or locally.
The price charged national advertisers for space and time in local advertising media. Traditionally, newspapers, radio, and television stations have charged higher rates for national advertising than for local advertising.
The use of advertising messages that concentrate on pointing out undesirable aspects of competing products, services, organizations, or ideas. This technique is frequently used in political advertising to attack opposing politicians and political ideas.
The bargaining that occurs between buyers and sellers over the price, position, ratings, etc. that make up a media schedule.
The costs associated with services rendered by an advertising agency, excluding the agency commission.
A term used in audit reports and publisher’s statements, referring to circulation that has been paid for at not less than 50 percent of the basic newsstand or subscription price.
The number of a potential audience exposed to a specific vehicle or media schedule at least once within a given time period. Reach = GRP's / Average Frequency.
Televisions which have the ability to dial up to the Internet. Often, a manufacturer has integrated or offers a special set-top which permits the viewer to connect online over telephone wires.
The combined cumulative audience exposed to an advertisement. For example, the number of different people exposed to at least one of two or more insertions in one or more vehicles. Those people exposed to more than one insertion are only counted once.
Total of copies printed suitable for distribution.
A term that is used to describe the informal rules of conduct ("do's and don'ts") of online behavior.
1) A national or regional group of affiliated broadcast stations contractually bound to distribute radio or television programs for simultaneous transmission. 2) A program distributor interconnected with stations or cable systems for the distribution of programming.
Money received by affiliated stations from networks in exchange for airing network programs and commercials.
Transmission of network programming to affiliated stations or cable systems.
Programming time the network controls on each of its affiliate stations.
A compilation of syndicated and/or locally edited features, news items, or editorial comment and advertising distributed as a separate part or section of the newspaper.
A firm that sells special material such as features, photographs, comic strips, and cartoons for publication in newspapers.
Circulation sold individually, such as at newsstands, rather than by subscription.
A print advertising position, often at premium rates, that appears next to news or editorial material.
A game plan employed by a firm that specializes in serving particular market segments in order to avoid clashing with the major competitors in the market. “Nichers” pursue market segments that are of sufficient size to be profitable while at the same time are of less interest to the major competitors.
A market research company that measures national and local television viewing and reports rating estimates. See also NSI, NTI, or NHTI.
Provides local viewing information for Spanish-language television stations in 19 markets with significant Hispanic populations.
Reports viewing to Spanish language television networks by measuring the viewing habits of Hispanics living in the United States. Data are collected from a national People Meter sample.
Established in 1980, NHI provides television audience measurement of cable, pay cable, VCR and other homevideo television sources.
The leading provider of television audience measurement services in the United States and Canada. It also provides competitive advertising intelligence and Internet measurement services.
Launched in 1999 as a joint venture between Nielsen Media Research and NetRatings, Inc., to provide Internet audience measurement and analysis services in the U.S. and worldwide. The service reports on Internet use and advertising, include the number, frequency and duration of visits to specific sites, detailed data on exposure to ad banners, streaming media usage and demographic profiles. Data are collected through research panels. Shortly after the Nielsen/NetRatings venture was announced, VNU, the Dutch information services and publishing company, acquired Nielsen Media Research, including a controlling interest in NetRatings. Nielsen/NetRatings also has a strategic partnership with ACNielsen Company for Internet measurement services outside the U.S. and Canada.
Established in 1954, NSI provides local market television audience measurement for more than 1,000 local television stations in 210 local television markets. In nearly 48 markets, NSI provides metered services which include audience estimates every day.
Established in 1950, NTI provides audience estimates for all national broadcast network television programs. In 1987, this service began collecting data on nationwide television viewing on a daily basis using the People Meter.
Radio and television advertising that is designed to educate and promote ideas or institutions, e.g., public service announcements.
A sample that relies on personal judgement somewhere in the element selection process and, therefore, prohibits estimating the probability that any population element will be included in the sample.
An error that arises in research that is not due to sampling; nonsampling error can occur because of errors in conception, logic, misinterpretation of replies, statistics, arithmetic, and errors in tabulating or coding, or in reporting the results.
Norm is the standardized or hypothesized value against which a sample statistic is compared.
A local station owned and operated by a network.
Refers to advertising time or space sold at a rate that does not appear on the rate card.
Former network programs offered to stations or cable in syndication.
A sign that advertises products or services that are not sold, produced, manufactured or furnished on the property where the sign is located. An out-of-home unit is an off-premise sign.
When a site forwards its log files to an off-site web research service for analysis.
A periodic study that asks questions on a number of unrelated subjects. The results may be completely or partially syndicated among clients.
An entertainment service that allows viewers instant access to content such as movies, cable series, original programs, educational programs, premium channels, news, sports, etc. Programming from content providers is delivered by consumer’s cable company and may be free, subscription-based, or paid for on a transactional basis. With On Demand service, consumers can control what they watch and when, with features such as play, pause, fast-forward, rewind and stop. Preferred to VoD.
A sign that advertises products or services that are sold, produced, manufactured, or furnished on the property where the sign is located.
When a server has an appropriate software program to measure and analyze traffic received on its own site.
A vertical Poster used on subway and train platforms.
A vertical Poster panel placed near the entrances of point-of-sale locales; independent convenience stores, grocery or liquor stores and other retail outlets.
Broadcast of a program or commercial only once, usually in syndication.
A company or business that provides customers with Internet access services.
1) Time left at the end of a commercial or program which is provided for the use of local advertising or station identification. 2) a radio or television program with no specific time to end.
The highest rate charged for space or time by an advertising vehicle.
Refers to an individual giving a company permission to use data collected from or about the individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company's products and services.
Email received based on a user’s choice to opt-in is only used to send messages which will be of interest to them. Opt-in email continues to build market share in the online advertising world. More often than not, opt-in is the default and user action, such as a check box, is required to opt-out.
A technique for building the optimum schedule for a given target market.
When a company states that it plans to market its products and services to an individual unless the individual asks to be removed from the company's mailing list.
A scheduling method that rotates a commercial spot evenly within a group of two to four programs. Ratings data for an orbit comes from the Program Average tape for the selected programs.
The media schedule placed by the buyer, with the vendor.
Exposure to advertising and mass media away from one’s home. Included are outdoor, point-of-purchase (in-store media), transit and radio.
People who read a magazine someplace other than in their own home.
Display advertising, such as billboards or posters, located outside along highways and railroads, on rooftops and walls, at bus stops, etc.
A system of grading a poster panel’s visibility.
Advertising panel located closest to the edge of the street, where two or more panels are positioned side-by-side.
Competing cable systems covering the same geographic area.
The amount of total ratings achieved above the stated goal.
Television ratings drawn from households in metered markets, available the day after broadcast.
In broadcast, a reason for a makegood spot when a program airs longer than its scheduled time period. For example, a baseball game may overrun the programming schedule. In print, more copies than the expected distribution to cover unexpected needs, like damaged or lost copies and requests for back issues or samples.
A group of television or radio programs a station or network offers to an agency, often at a discounted rate, in response to its target audience, budget, and GRP goals.
Separate advertising material included in merchandise packages that advertises goods or services.
A good that is usually sold in smaller packages, carries a low unit price, is distributed through food and drug stores, is heavily promoted (usually in mass media), and is bought and consumed frequently.
A program used to monitor and record activity and to detect problems with web transactions on a network.
A document having a specific URL and comprised of a set of associated files. A page may contain text, images, and other online elements. It may be static or dynamically generated. It may be made up of multiple frames or screens, but should contain a designated primary object which, when loaded, is counted as the entire page.
The successful transfer of the text of a web page to a browser.
The opportunity for an HTML document to appear on a browser window as a direct result of a user’s interaction with a web site.
The loading of a web page by a browser. The number of times users request a web page. Page view is used interchangeably with page impression. Often used as a measure of web site traffic.
The number of times a web page has been successfully served to a user’s browser.
Average number of web pages each unique visitor has viewed on the listed site. This measure can help determine how many pages a person views per visit to a site, and thus indicate their level of interest in the particular site.
The number of copies of a print advertising medium that are distributed to those that are purchased by the reader.
Purchaser of publication on a term contract, whose subscription qualifies as paid circulation in accordance with the rules.
A free-standing steel or wooden structure, approximately 50’ wide by 15’ high, with molding around the outer edges similar to a poster panel, and including a hand painted copy message. Bulletins are generally found hear highways or roofs of buildings in high traffic areas.
Advertising message (not a designation sign) painted directly on building surface for high impact visibility, often several stories high.
1) A single outdoor billboard or transit advertising unit. This includes regular and illuminated types of outdoor advertising. A regular panel is only seen during the daytime, while an illuminated panel is seen also from dusk until dawn. 2) In audience research, a continuing sample of people or households that are measured repeatedly.
A broadcast television station that supplies programming and commercials to another station (satellite station) to expand the coverage of the parent.
A term applied specifically to various devices capable of counting and identifying individuals in viewing proximity to a television set, requiring no action from those individuals being identified. This is in contrast to “active” people meters, which requires individuals to push buttons.
A group of letters and/or numbers which allow a unique user access to a secured web site, a secured area of a web site, a software program, a network, etc.
Studios that broadcast breaks at the same time every day. For example, CNN is a patterned network.
Any of a number of program services for which cable subscribers pay a monthly charge in addition to the basic cable subscription fees. Refers to channels such as HBO, available for an extra fee to cable TV subscribers.
Advertising model in which advertisers pay for click-throughs to their website. Ads are served based on keywords or themes.
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay based on how many users were served their ads.
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay for each “sales lead” generated. For example, an advertiser might pay for every visitor that clicked on an ad or site and successfully completed a form.
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many sales transactions were generated as a direct result of the ad.
Usually movies or special events that a cable subscriber specially requests to receive for single fee added to the monthly cable bill.
Television service supported by viewers as distinct from “free” (advertiser-supported) or public television. Includes pay cable, multipoint distribution systems and subscription television. May be paid for by a monthly subscription fee or on a pay per view basis.
1) The degree to which a medium or vehicle has obtained specific target coverage. 2) The percent of households in a given area that own either a television set or a radio. For example, 98 percent of U.S. homes own TV sets. 3) The actual number of cable subscribers versus the total number of homes with cable service available to them. 4) The proportion of persons or homes that can physically be exposed to a medium.
An electronic metering device attached to a TV set to measure tuning status (set on/off, channel, time, and duration of tuning) as well as demographic data (who is watching). Household members and their guests push buttons to identify themselves. Current people meters also have separate remote-controlled, portable handsets.
A special magazine advertising rate determined by the number of issues used during the contract period. Similar to a frequency discount, except that the per-issue rate is based on the number of issues in which an advertising campaign appears, rather than the number of advertisements.
The percentage of a medium’s total audience that is part of a specific group. Example: if there are 100,000 women who read Magazine A, and 50,000 are 18-34 years old, then 50 percent of the total audience is composed of Women 18-34.
In print media: the total audience of a publication as a percent of the total population. Or, the circulation of a publication as a percent of total homes. In broadcast media: the number of homes that are able to receive a signal of specific strength, but which do not necessarily tune to the station.
A popular method of setting advertising budgets based on a preset percent of past or estimated future sales. Advertisers like this method because it is simple and it relates advertising spending directly to sales. Drawbacks to the percent of sales method include the reliance on sales to determine advertising spending, the resulting inflexibility of advertising budgets, and the possible for over-spending on established brands and under-spending on new or repositioned brands.
A percentage is a part of a whole number expressed in hundredths; for example, ˝ equals 50/100 or 50 percent. Percentages are used extensively by media planners.
In cable, a method of billing a region based on a specific percentage of households.
A binding process that uses glue rather than staples or stitching and results in a square spine.
An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads.
A bulletin that remains permanently located at a specified site throughout the term of a contract, usually for long periods. A permanent bulletin program can build strong brand recognition in specific market areas.
A cookie which remains on the user's hard drive until the user erases it.
A generic term for a device that is similar to a VCR but records television data in digital format as opposed to the VCR’s analog format. PVR’s have all of the same functionality of VCR’s plus the ability to instantly jump to any part of the program without having to rewind or fast-forward the data stream. Two common PVR systems are TiVo and ReplayTV.
Refers to information such as an individual's name, mailing address, phone number or email address.
Ranking of TV programs (highest to lowest) based on the number of persons reached by selected age groups (Women 18-34, etc.)
The percent of people over twelve listening to radio at any given time.
A Nielsen term referring to the total number of persons watching television during a given time period. Nielsen expresses PUT as a percentage of the population or as a number that represents the thousands of persons viewing television. PUT = (Rating / Share) x 100.
The same meaning as Persons Using Television, except this term is used by Arbitron.
Backlit displays affixed to street telephone facilities.
1) A direct mail offer that is included free with another offer. 2) Two commercials which are shown back-to-back by the same sponsor.
One episode of a proposed TV series produced and aired as a trial or test run.
Picture element (single illuminated dot) on a TV or computer monitor. The metric used to indicate the size of Internet ads.
A media outlet placed in areas where people congregate, pass through or wait for something. Examples are grocery store checkout lines, airports, malls, commuter routes and doctor’s offices. The television form generally carries relevant programming designed to draw attention to the commercials.
The process of analyzing media and marketing information to design an advertising schedule that meets specific marketing objectives.
1) The total number of outdoor structures under a single ownership in an area. 2) The physical facilities comprising a cable system.
The owner of an outdoor advertising company in a city or area.
The type of computer or operating system on which a software application runs (e.g., PC, Macintosh, Unix or WebTV).
A modification to a browser that allows the execution of a certain type of custom file, such as Macromedia’s Flash. Plug-ins are typically designed to enhance the web user experience by providing animation, video or audio content.
A group of commercials, promos or announcements contained in a television program break.
1) Advertising usually in the form of window and/or interior displays in establishments where a product is sold to the ultimate consumer. 2) On and off-shelf display material or product stocking generally at the retail level that is used to call special attention to the featured product.
An ad that displays in a new browser window behind the current browser window. Pop-under ad windows typically are smaller and do not offer the standard navigation tools of a standard browser window.
An ad that appears in a separate window on top of content that is already on screen. Similar to a daughter window, but without an associated banner. An ad that displays in a new browser window.
The number of people in the target market or the survey universe.
A mobile Poster panel which may be wheeled to a given location. Frequently used for merchandising purpose at retail or other locations for special events.
A translation format developed by Adobe and used primarily for distributing files across a network, or on a web site. Files with a .pdf extension have been created in another application and then translated into .pdf files so they can be viewed by anyone, regardless of platform.
A site featuring a suite of commonly used services (search, email, news, weather, entertainment, etc.), serving as a starting point and frequent gateway to the web (web portal) or a niche topic (vertical portal).
1) A program or time slot an advertiser considers desirable. 2) An advertisement’s location on a page. Special positions may carry premium rates.
A comparison of the actual advertising schedule run to the original expectations of the schedule as purchased, considering adherence to buy specifications, actual audience achieved as measured by audience ratings services when available, and conformity to standard industry practices.
An out-of-home unit with a slatted face that allows three different copy messages to revolve at intermittent intervals. Subject to a reduced circulation based upon number of turns per minute.
A term used for preprinted advertising messages that are posted on advertising structures. In Canada it is often referred to as a poster (vertical or horizontal). In the US and Europe, it is referred to as 30 or 8 sheets.
The date when a poster program is scheduled to commence. A five-day leeway is customary to allow for completed posting of a showing for an advertiser.
A data base combining Census data, nationwide consumer surveys, and interviews with hundreds of people across the US into a geo-demographic segmentation system.
1) The displacement of one advertiser’s local commercial by another advertiser, usually because the second advertiser is paying a higher price for the spot. 2) The replacement of a regularly scheduled program with a special interest program. Preemption may occur on the national, regional or local level.
A usually discounted rate for commercial time which is sold to an advertiser and is not guaranteed. Time may e sold to another advertiser who is willing to pay more; therefore, the advertiser buying this rate gambles to save money on the spot.
A position in a printed publication that is thought to attract more reader attention and is sold at a higher rate; for example, the back cover of a magazine.
1) An item, other than the product itself, which is offered free or at a nominal price as an incentive to purchase the advertised product or service. 2) Anything, except periodicals, offered to a subscriber, either free or at a price, with a subscription, either direct, or by agent.
1) A reproduction of an advertisement which is viewed before actual publication and is created by an advertiser for special purposes, e.g., to serve as retail displays, or to gain support from retailers. 2) Any advertising material printed ahead of a publication’s regular press run often on a printing press other than the regular publication press. The preprint advertising is inserted into the publication during its regular printing and binding process. Preprint advertising includes a variety of approaches, including multipage inserts, free standing inserts, reply cards and reply envelopes, and ads printed on a paper stock that is different from the paper stock on which the publication is printed.
An approach to the advertising message that emphasizes the basic attributes of the product category. This approach is usually employed by trade associations in an attempt to build demand for all the competing brands in the product category and to enhance the image of the industry involved.
The information collected specifically for the purpose of the investigation at hand.
The PMA (Primary Market Area) is a geographic definition, used in the St. Catharines-Niagara and Hamilton markets (Canada). In the St. Catharines-Niagara, it includes St. Catharines, Thorold, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Lincoln and Pelham. In Hamilton, it is the balance of the CMA excluding Burlington CSD.
A geographic entity defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget for use by federal statistical agencies. If an area meets the requirements to qualify as a metropolitan statistical area and has a population of one million or more, two or more PMSA’s may be defined within it if statistical criteria are met and local opinion is in favor. A PMSA consists of one or more counties (county subdivisions in New England) that have substantial commuting interchange. When two or more PMSA’s have been recognized, the larger area of which they are components then is designated a consolidated metropolitan statistical area.
The person responsible for 50% or more of household grocery purchases.
Readers who purchase or subscribe to a publication, or readers who are members of a household that purchases the publication.
The time period immediately preceding prime time television, usually 7:30-8:00pm EST.
Time periods covering peak broadcast set usage and highest ratings. For television, usually 8:00-11:00pm EST Monday through Saturday and 7:30-11:00pm EST Sunday. For radio, generally 6:00-10:00am and 3:00-7:00pm EST.
A research sample in which the elements are selected from a sampling frame with a known, non-zero probability of selection. Some common types of probability samples are: 1) Simple Random Sample: Each element is selected at random from the population as a whole; 2) Stratified Sampling: The original sampling frame is divided into mutually exclusive sub-frames (strata) and separate and independent samples are selected from each strata; 3) Multi-Stage Samples: Sampling elements are selected in stages. For example, the first stage might involve selecting block groups within counties. The second stage might then be a sampling of blocks. Different frames and different elements are usually used at each stage. The probabilities of selecting each element are known for each stage of selection; 4) Cluster Sample: The sample elements are groups of units and not individual units. Each element is identified with only one cluster in the selection process.
Goods or services that an advertiser offers for sale.
The consumer perception of a product or service as compared to it’s competition.
A statistic that is calculated to determine whether a linear relationship exists between two metric variables and it takes values between -1 and +1 (depending on the degree of the relationship). A negative value indicates that the variables move in opposite directions and a positive value indicates that they move in the same direction. A value of 0 indicates that there is no linear relationship (although there may be a non-linear relationship).
Process of physically preparing the advertising idea into a print or broadcast advertisement.
Advertising directed toward professionals such as doctors, dentists, and pharmacists, etc., who are in a position to promote products to their patients or customers.
A general term that covers the description of a population of interest (or a sub-group) according to certain characteristics. For example, a demographic profile describes consumers in terms of their age, gender, life-cycle stage and occupation.
The broadcast vehicle within which a station offers to place advertising. This vehicle has a name or title to identify it, such as West Wing, 60 Minutes, Grey’s Anatomy, etc.
Ratings data that tracks actual program performance rather than time period performance.
Removal of one or more programs by a cable system. Occurs to protect a local broadcast station against program duplication from an outside source, or where the system elects to preempt one program in order to carry another.
Percentage of a sample group of people tuned in to a particular program at a particular time.
Selection of programming from a number of available sources by a cable system or a television station. The cable system may preempt specific programs offered by a network to substitute other programs.
Set of proofs made during the four-color printing process which shows each color plate separately and in combination.
1) Expressing or projecting a rating in terms of the estimated number of households or persons reached. 2) The total number of people to which a sample size is projected to represent the population of a group of people.
The estimate of a media vehicle’s future audience delivery. To calculate the projected rating, multiply the current share by the seasonal viewing level. Projected Rating = Current Share X Seasonal Viewing Level.
A short announcement encouraging viewers or listeners to tune into a program.
All forms of communication other than advertising that call attention to products and services by adding extra value toward the purchase. Includes temporary discounts, allowances, premium offers, coupons, contests, sweepstakes, etc.
Advertising intended to inform prospective customers of special sales. It announces the arrival of new and seasonal goods, and it features, creates, and promotes a market for the merchandise items in regular stock.
The combination of various advertising, public relations, sales promotion, and personal selling activities used by the marketer over a period of time to achieve predetermined goals.
A product imprinted with, or otherwise carrying, a logo or promotional message.
An impression on paper of type, an engraving or the like, for the purpose of checking the correctness and quality of the material to be printed.
A uniform set of rules that enable two devices to connect and transmit data to one another. Protocols determine how data are transmitted between computing devices and over networks. They define issues such as error control and data compression methods. The protocol determines the following: type of error checking to be used, data compression method (if any), how the sending device will indicate that it has finished a message and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received the message. Internet protocols include TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).
A method of deriving from the known characteristics of measured publications, the audience or readership characteristics for a non-measured publication. Some databanks allow these “prototyped” estimates to be added to those of measured publications in a survey, and through a “model” or random duplication generate reach/frequency estimates for media combinations.
Intermediaries between end users and web sites such as ISPs, commercial online services, and corporate networks. Proxy servers hold the most commonly and recently used content from the web for users in order to provide quicker access and to increase server security.
A term that describes consumers or audience members on the basis of some psychological trait, characteristic of behavior, attitudes, or lifestyle. Psychographic systems, such as VALS (Values and Lifestyles) may be linked to major syndicated media audience studies.
1) Consumer Behavior Definition: A technique that investigates how people live, what interests them, and what they like; it is also called life style analysis or AIO because it relies on a number of statements about a person’s activities, interests, and opinions. 2) Marketing Research Definition: A technique that investigates how people live and what interests them.
The process of dividing markets into segments on the basis of consumer life styles.
Distribution network and representative organization of public TV.
1) Advertising Definition: An advertisement or commercial that is carried by an advertising vehicle at no cost as a public service to its readers, viewers, or listeners. 2) Sales Promotion Definition: An announcement aired free of charge that promotes either government programs, nonprofit organizations, or community service activities. 3) Social Marketing Definition: A promotional message for a nonprofit organization or for a social cause printed or broadcast at no charge by the media.
Non-commercial television supported by federal and state funds, voluntary contributions and grants, offering a variety of programming.
A media research supplier reporting on print advertising volume (vehicle, space, cost) by advertiser brand or service.
The certified circulation of a publication, attested by the publisher and subject to audit.
A publication printed on low-quality paper that usually includes sensational editorial material. Mystery and detective magazines are typical pulp magazines.
A flighting technique that calls for either a continuous base of support augmented by intermittent bursts of heavy pressure, or an on-off-on-off pattern (e.g., one week on, one week off).
A device used to measure the dilation of a participant’s pupil in response to a visual stimulus.
A method of advertising research in which a study is conducted on the relationship between a viewer’s pupil dilation and the interest factor of visual stimuli.
A measure of respondent’s attitudes towards buying a particular product or service.
Pro-active, partial screen, dynamic advertisement which comes in various formats.
A publication sent only to individuals who meet certain requirements. For example, computer information systems professionals are qualified to receive Computerworld magazine.
A person who can prove readership of a publication.
Qualitative research is designed to reveal information that it may be difficult or impossible to measure objectively, or to quantify. Qualitative research can be valuable in discovering people’s attitudes and beliefs, and obtaining reactions (e.g., creative treatments, brand packaging), possibly as a basis for future quantitative research. Typically, qualitative research requires small samples and may use intensive interviewing techniques (focus groups, interviews).
Quantitative research seeks to quantify specific characteristics of populations or their habits. It usually requires large samples to generate findings that are statistically significant, and which allow analysis of segments of the data to determine appropriate actions. Quantitative research typically includes questionnaire design, data collection and data processing, and content analysis of results to open-end questions and to media.
Generally, a thirteen week (3 month) period. There are four quarters in one year.
A fifteen minute period of time used to measure audience listening/viewing.
Individuals viewing a station at least five minutes in a specific 15-minute period.
Transit advertising car cards that appear in every fourth transit system vehicle.
A display of frequency (or related data) among audiences grouped into equal fourths of reach.
Posters affixed to the sides of public buses with copy area of 27” x 85”.
A request for information, usually to a search engine.
A structured technique for collecting data consisting of a series of questions. Questionnaires can be self-completion or administered by an interviewer, they can be completed orally or in writing.
A display of frequency among audiences grouped into equal fifths of total reach. Common names for other equal groups are tercile (3), quartile (4), and decile (10).
A quintile analysis is computed by dividing the number of people reached by a schedule into five equal groups. The average frequency is then computed for each sub-group.
The total number of interviews to be completed by a data collection company. Quotas may also be defined by market, by product, by interviewer or by rotation, etc.
A type of non-probability sample, in which desired sample size or quotas are established for various universe subclasses (controls). The purpose is to insure the characteristics of the sample being examined are distributed in proportion to the characteristics of the total population. Choice of controls vary depending on the survey objectives. Selections of sample elements are not random selections. The probability of selecting an element is often unknown. Some elements may not have any chance of being selected.
A method of reducing sampling frame error and involves the use of randomly generated numbers for a telephone survey, instead of relying on telephone directories or other lists of numbers that may exclude certain types of consumers.
The difference (error) associated with a universe estimate from a randomly selected sample where each member of the population has an equal or known probability of being selected.
A sample taken from any given population in which each person maintains equal chances of being selected.
A measure of the variability that is the difference between the largest and the smallest value in a set of values.
The cost of an amount of time during a specific time period for broadcast advertising or a specific size and/or location for printed advertising.
The circulation of a print vehicle, upon which the publisher bases advertising space rates. The publisher may not guarantee the rate base.
A printed listing of the charges associated with different amounts of time or space, different placements in the vehicle, and other conditions of sales. Often rate cards serve as the starting point for negotiation in the fashion of the sticker on the window of a new car.
The number of homes or people exposed to a media vehicle expressed as a percentage of the population base. Formulas for Household Rating = HUT X Share OR Household Audience / Household Universe OR Demographic Rating / Conversion Factor. Formulas for Demographic Rating = Demographic Audience / Demographic Universe OR Household Rating X Conversion Factor OR Share X Total Listening (People Using Radio – PUR). One rating point equals one percent.
Refers to data before analysis or weighting.
The number of different homes or people exposed to a specific media or media schedule at least once within a given time period. Reach is expressed as a percentage of a population base. For example: 10 homes are exposed to Program A only; 10 homes are exposed to Program B only; 10 homes are exposed to both Program A and Program B If the universe is made up of 100 homes then 30 homes, or 30 percent of the universe are reached. Reach = GRP's / Average Frequency.
A visual breakout of how reach builds over time. Reach curves fluctuate by medium and by the schedule and media combination.
The average number of persons who read each copy of an issue of a publication. The average number of readers-per-copy of a publication is computed by dividing the total number of different people who read or looked into an average issue of a magazine, by the magazine’s total circulation. RPC = Number of Readers / Circulation.
1) The total number of readers of a publication (includes Primary and Pass-along readers). 2) The percentage of people that can recall a particular advertisement, aided or unaided.
Events that happen in real time are happening virtually at that particular moment. When one chats in a chat room, or sends an instant message, one is interacting in real time since it is immediate.
Rear end bus Posters – upper portion.
Rear end bus Posters – below window.
A test of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of members of the audience are contacted at a specific time after exposure to a media vehicle and asked to recall advertising messages they remember seeing and/or hearing in the media vehicle. It is called unaided recall if there is not prompting with elements of the ads or commercials being examined. With prompting, the results are called aided recall.
A technique used to determine magazine readership. Respondents to the survey are shown magazine logos and asked if they have recently read or looked into any of the publications. Readership is then identified by asking if any issue has been read or looked into within the last publication cycle (e.g., weekly publications within the past 7 days, etc.).
In radio, the analysis of the number of people who listen to more than one daypart. For example, you could look at how many 6:00am to 10:00am listeners also listen to, or recycle into, the 3:00pm to 7:00pm daypart.
The process of forwarding a call for a creative to another server based on availability and frequency capping, among other criteria.
A new member of the ad network (either a publisher or advertiser) referred directly by a current member through a button link or other interactive means.
The referring page, or referral link is a place from which the user clicked to get to the current page. In other words, since a hyperlink connects one URL to another, in clicking on a link the browser moves from the referring URL to the destination URL.
Fees paid by advertisers for delivering a qualified sales lead or purchase inquiry.
To reload the same web page.
The subdivision of a national magazine’s circulation into geographic regions, so that advertisers can purchase only the portion of the publication’s circulation that applies to their immediate needs. A regional can be a group of neighboring states, a single state, or in some instances, regions within specific states. A demographic edition operates on the same principle, except that the subdivisions are based on various demographic characteristics of the publication’s circulation.
A group of broadcast stations interconnected for carriage of programs of regional interest, usually sports events.
A process for site visitors to enter information about themselves. Sites use registration data to enable or enhance targeting of content and ads. Registration can be required or voluntary.
The analysis of the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. Its purpose is to determine whether a relationship exists and the strength of the relationship. It is also used to determine the mathematical relationship between the variables, predict the values of the dependent variable and control other independent variables when evaluating the effect of one or more independent variables.
Term used to designate advertising structures which do not have illumination.
The degree to which a research sample result conforms with the results that would be obtained if a complete census were taken.
Print media or website ad space that is relatively undesirable and is often resold to a third party to be filled with low dollar advertising.
A vehicle located outside a radio, TV, or cable studio and used to broadcast on-the-scent coverage of sporting events, etc.
The percentage of individuals that renew their print media subscriptions to extend beyond the previous expiration date.
A person who solicits advertising space on behalf of a particular medium.
A firm that represents broadcast stations and cable systems to media buyers. These firms augment a station’s sales department in areas outside of its home market.
Unique visitor who has accessed a web site more than once over a specific time period.
A sample that contains units in the same proportion as the population of interest.
An addressed card inserted between pages of a magazine or newspaper.
A Nielsen Media Research quarterly report that provides audience profiles, competition and lead-in programs for syndicated programs.
A document that an enterprise sends to a vendor inviting the vendor to submit a bid for hardware, software, services, or any combination of the three. An organization typically issues the RFP in order to assess competing bids.
The analysis of a media schedule (that may be on air) for delivery based on newer ratings information (i.e., a new book).
Programs repeated sometime after their original presentation.
Fees paid to performers and other creative talent for subsequent exposures of their filmed or video programs or commercials.
Refers to the clarity of a television image as received by a set.
A member of a survey who successfully completes an interview or returns a usable questionnaire.
Data from an individual respondent.
The number of people in the survey universe represented by a respondent in the completed sample.
Percentage of homes or individuals in a pre-designated sample who provide usable information for tabulation and analysis.
Advertising which promotes local merchandiser’s goods and services.
The actual or perceived future value of an expense or investment. Ad campaign ROI is a metric that attempts to determine what the advertiser receives in return for the cost of the advertising, usually in terms of new sales.
The average number of times a user returns to a site over a specific time period.
A general term used to describe advances in online creative that take advantage of enhanced sensory features such as animation, audio and video. Rich media takes many different digital file forms. The serving of rich media creative can require more bandwidth and software modifications for older systems. Rich media creative will become more useful as user bandwidth increases.
A physical inspection of the panels which comprise an out-of-home advertising buy…either pre-buy or post-buy.
The adjustment of ratings for all demos based on a change made to the primary demo's rating.
A method of scheduling broadcast commercials to obtain maximum reach by simultaneously showing the identical advertisement on several different stations.
Replacing cable network programs and/or advertisements with local events.
Color printing done during the regular press run.
1) A standardized 14’ x 48’ bulletin that is moved to different locations in a market at fixed intervals, usually every 60 or 90 days. A rotary bulletin program can provide balanced reach in a market. 2) A single ad spot will display a different advertisement upon each calling of the web page.
Scheduling spots on the various days that the program broadcasts or during a program of long duration (i.e., a different half hour each week of a late movie).
A magazine supplement that is printed by a gravure process, and run on a rotary press. This process is useful for large runs of pictorial effects.
A device that connects any number of LAN's. Routers use headers and a forwarding table to determine where packets go, and they communicate with each other to configure the best route between any two hosts.
Refers to a rotation of your ad throughout a specified group of pages (Group A, B or C). Advertisers are given more control by selecting the group desired (from the pre-designated groups available) and then selecting the number of total monthly impressions to be delivered. The system then delivers a random rotation throughout only the group of pages selected.
1) An ad buying option where ad placements can appear on any pages within an ad network. 2) The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventory. The advertiser usually foregoes any targeting, or premium positioning, in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.
The positioning of ads anywhere within the pages of a newspaper or magazine as the staff of the publication prepares the various pages for printing. Thus contrasts with advertisers paying premium prices for ads that are to be placed in specific locations in a magazine or newspaper.
A broadcast commercial with time of play left to the discretion of the stations. For example, the advertiser requests WAAA-FM ROS, and the station can run the spots any time.
The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby ads run across an entire site, often at a lower cost to the advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub-sections. There is, however, no specific targeting in this model.
A binding process that holds a publication together by stapling through the middle of the fold. Time and Newsweek use saddle stitching.
Refers to the effect of advertising on sales.
Part of a group selected as statistically representative of the whole group.
The actual number of people who respond to a question or group of questions. All other things being equal, the larger the sample or cell size, the lower the margin of error for the results (i.e., greater accuracy). A sample in which every unit of the population has a calculable probability of being selected in the sample.
An individual member of the sample.
The difference between the survey results obtained with a sample, and the results that would be obtained with a complete study of the entire population using the same procedures used for the sample.
The source from which the sample is drawn.
SMATV is an enhanced master antenna system on apartment complexes and hotels. The enhancement is the addition of an earth-station dish that picks up satellite signals and some pay services. This additional programming is then played on channels that are not occupied by broadcast TV on the existing system.
1) A stations that relays broadcasts to areas both within and beyond its normal coverage via satellite. 2) A station dependent on another station for most of its programming.
Broadcasts relayed from an orbiting space vehicle to expand the coverage area of the parent station or network.
Concentrating commercials in a short time period to reach many people and/or to reach the same people many different times.
A factor which adjusts an audience to account for changes in circulation.
The data recorded by bar code scanners.
A type of consumer panel where participants use a bar-code scanner to record purchases.
The Scarborough report is designed as a study of product and media usage among Adults 18+. Scarborough measures the top 75 markets twice a year.
Marketers purchasing commercial time when the need arises from the unsold inventory at a different cost than the upfront buys.
Unsold national ad time on the broadcast networks that remains after the preseason “up-front” buying period.
A broadcast scheduling strategy intended to build reach by placing random announcements on several different network and station programs.
1) The list of media to use during an advertising campaign. 2) A list of advertising commercials to include in a media vehicle during a specific time. 3) The advance listing of programs with times and dates broadcast by a station.
A cost per point ratings data service that provides market high, medium and low CPP’s. Agencies use this service as a planning tool for establishing CPP’s in local spot markets.
An electronic device, usually located in the transmitter, used to change a signal to prevent viewing on a normal television set unless another electronic device (decoder) is attached to the TV set to unscramble the picture.
The procedure of asking specific questions to determine whether respondents are eligible to participate in a particular research study. This is done at the very beginning of an interview.
The questions at the beginning of an interview or questionnaire to ensure that a potential respondent is eligible for the survey.
Files that initiate routines like generating web pages dynamically in response to user input.
A program that acts as a catalog for the Internet. Using keywords, search engines help a user to locate their desired information. Examples: Yahoo, Google, Overture, Alta Vista, Lycos, and Excite.
Household and persons audience estimates for each program reported as an average of all telecasts.
1) Characteristics pertaining to each medium that vary by season. For example, more people listen to the radio during the summer months. 2) The variation in sales for goods and services throughout the year, depending on the season, e.g. hot chocolate is advertised more in the winter, as opposed to summer months.
In broadcast media, rating modifications that reflect changes in the season, e.g., weather and holidays.
Readers of a publication who access a copy other than by purchase or subscription, such as in a waiting room, at a neighbor’s, in an office or business place, etc.
The statistics not gathered for the immediate study at hand but for some other purpose.
The process of dividing markets into groups of consumers who are similar to each other, but different to the consumers in other groups.
Compiling magazine copies with specific combinations of editorial directed at groups or individuals with particular interests. Selectively binding into the magazine a combination of articles designed to appeal to various reader groups.
Advertising which promotes a particular manufacturer's brand as opposed to a generic product.
A direct-mail piece in which no envelope or wrapper is required for mailing.
In the homevideo business, movies that are sold to consumers rather than rented to them.
The cable system headend equipment uses a single tape deck so commercials air in the order they appear on the tape.
A computer which distributes files which are shared across a LAN, WAN or the Internet.
Audience measurement derived from server logs.
One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods – server-initiated and client-initiated. Server-initiated ad counting uses the publisher's Web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a server-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher's ad server or the Web content server.
A process whereby a user's browser maintains an automated or customized connection or profile with a web server. The browser usually sets up a unique request that is recorded and stored electronically for future reference. Examples are: requests for the automated delivery of email newsletters, the request for web content based on a specific search criteria determined by the user, or setting up a personalized web page that customizes the information delivered to the user based on pre-determined self selections.
A process whereby a server maintains an open connection with a browser after the initial request for a page. Through this open connection the server continues to provide updated pages and content even though the visitor has made no further direct requests for such information.
Total number of television sets that are turned on at a particular time. This differs from HUT (Homes Using Television), because most households have more than one TV set.
An electronic device that sits on top of one's TV set and allows it to connect to the Internet, game systems, or cable systems.
The percent of the total viewing or listening audience in a specific time period tuned to a particular station, network, or program. Formulas for computing Share are: 1) Share = (Rating X 100) / HUT. 2) Share % = Households To Station / Households Using Television (HUT). 3) Share % = Viewers or Listeners To Station / (People Using Television (PUT) / Average Quarter-Hour Persons (AQH)). 4) Share of Audience = Ratings / Sets In Use.
A brand’s advertising spending or media weight as a percentage of the total category.
A way of naming poster panel size, based on number of pieces of paper once needed to cover a poster panel area. It used to take 30 sheets to cover the average panel.
A printed card or other sign used in retail stores to call attention to a shelved product. It commonly is attached to the shelves or railings of display cases.
A browser plug-in developed by Macromedia which allows multimedia objects to appear on the web (animation, audio and video).
Intelligent agent which searches for the best price.
Shopping Newspaper (Shopper)
A newspaper-like publication, often distributed free, devoted mainly to advertising.
In print, the penalty an advertiser pays for not fulfilling space requirements contracted at the beginning of a given period, usually one year. The penalty is the difference between the contracted rate ad the actual earned rate.
The number of outdoor posters necessary to reach a certain percentage of the mobile population in a market within a specified time. The common advertising weights are #100, #75, #50, and #25 GRP/Showings, which relate to the population of the market. Showing size does not indicate the actual number of panels involved.
Backlit displays with copy area 46" wide x 67" high, located at parking venues (garages or lots).
A structure used to display information regarding a product or service. An out-of-home unit is a sign.
Airwave communication, such as radio or television signals. A radio signal is an electrical impulse created by changing audible sounds of various frequencies into electrical waves for broadcasting. A television signal is comprised of the same electrical impulse accompanied with light waves, to produce an image along with the sound.
Stations carried by a cable system, including local stations which request carriage by system, plus stations which are significantly viewed off-air within the community, plus distant signals imported by the system.
Carriage of station signals originating outside the specified zone in which the cable community is located.
The name given to a printed sheet of a publication after it comes off the press and is folded into eight, sixteen, or thirty-two pages.
A syndicated service which provides audience exposure and product usage data for print and broadcast media.
The protocol used to transfer email.
1) The concurrent broadcasting of one station's programming by other stations without any variation except for identifying call letters, frequency, and/or city of license at the same time. 2) Joint broadcast by a TV and radio station whereby the TV station carries the video and the radio station carries the stereo sound. A frequency occurrence in public broadcasting.
A publication's newsstand sales.
A panel is classified as a single facing if it is 25' from another Poster panel or 50' from another Bulletin along the line of travel.
In broadcast terms, any set of marketing (purchase) and media use data gathered from a single sample or panel. More specifically, the term has been applied to scanner-based purchase panels where media data (mostly television) are gathered by set meters or people meters. Magazine and other media data may be collected via diary or questionnaire.
Audience measurement derived from a web site's own server log.
A simple way to target advertising by the primary use of a web site (to buy or sell, to get information, to be entertained). Site function targeting is complementary to traditional category targeting.
Customized and interchangeable sets of graphics, which allow Internet users to continually change the look of their desktops or browsers, without changing their settings or functionality. Skins are a type of marketing tool.
An online ad significantly taller than the 120x240 vertical banner.
A schedule in which the pattern of advertising changes over the course of a campaign, in terms of advertising weight and spacing intervals. Generally refers to a campaign pattern of heavy weight at the start. As the campaign progresses the weight is reduced, with the hiatus between schedules increased.
The specified zone of a licensed television station that is not included in the FCC list of first 100 major television markets.
Identical in size and feel to credit cards, smart cards store information on an integrated microprocessor chip located within the body of the card. These chips hold a variety of information, from stored (monetary)-value used for retail and vending machines, to secure information and applications for higher-end operations such as medical/healthcare records. The different types of cards being used today are contact, contactless and combination cards. Contact smart cards must be inserted into a smart card reader. These cards have a contact plate on the face which makes an electrical connector for reads and writes to and from the chip when inserted into the reader. Contactless smart cards have an antenna coil, as well as a chip embedded within the card. The internal antenna allows for communication and power with a receiving antenna at the transaction point to transfer information. Close proximity is required for such transactions, which can decrease transaction time while increasing convenience. A combination card functions as both a contact and contactless smart card. Specific to interactive television, the viewer can insert smart cards into the set-top box to trigger the box to decrypt contact programming.
Software that detects capabilities of the user's browser (looking for such things as Java capabilities, plug-ins, screen resolution, and bandwidth).
An adhesive strip that is used to change a portion of copy displayed on an out-of-home unit.
A method of dividing a population of interest into groups usually based on income and occupation of the head of household, although other variables can also be used. The ESOMAR social grades (A, B, C1, C2, D, E1, E2 & E3) are based on the terminal education age and occupation of the main income earner.
Each system receiving the spot from the interconnect has their own insertion equipment.
A pod in which spots can cross into other pods.
The person who buys advertising in newspapers, magazines, and business publications, and sometimes outdoor and transit.
A measure of an outdoor poster location's effectiveness.
A slang term describing unsolicited email.
A "unique" program that is not part of the regular broadcast schedule and presented on a one-time-only basis, such as an awards presentation or musical variety show.
The placement of advertising messages on a wide variety of items of interest to the target market such as calendars, coffee cups, pens, hats, note paper, paper weights, T-shirts, watches, etc. In contrast to premiums, specialty advertising items are usually given to members of the audience. This is the older term used for Promotional products, but it remains a commonly used term by many companies.
An Out-of-Home structure built to specifications of one advertiser for use over a long term. The copy is presented in a spectacular or out-sized fashion through a variety of devices: embellishments, extensions, design movement, special light effects, 3D features, etc.
A program that automatically fetches web pages. Spiders are used to feed pages to search engines. It is called a spider because it crawls over the web. Because most web pages contain links to other pages, a spider can start almost anywhere. As soon as it sees a link to another page, it goes off and fetches it. Large search engines have many spiders working in parallel.
The amount of programming viewed or listened to in a broadcast area that originated in an adjacent market area.
The amount of programming viewed or listened to in adjacent areas beyond its originating market area.
A highly expressive page between an advertisement and an advertiser's web site that often provides product information. Some splash pages automatically jump to another page on the advertiser's web site after a certain amount of time has elapsed.
A technique in advertising research that involves placing an advertisement in one form, in half of the copies of a given publication, and in another form in the other half. The purpose is to compare the relative effectiveness of the two forms of advertisement.
A long term advertising relationship that typically involves the payment of a fixed fee to display a banner or other graphic on a web site, or be included in an email newsletter. Integrates an advertiser's message with content on an exclusive or non-exclusive basis. Indentified by "Brought to you by…" or "Sponsored by…" messages.
1) A commercial or public service message time period sold separately from adjacent time periods. 2) To buy program or announcement time on a market-by-market basis from a station's sales rep.
Commercial or public service announcements that are placed on television or radio programs.
Signals transmitted from a satellite to earth for a specific geographic area that is not included in the main satellite beam.
The technique of coloring for emphasis some areas of basic black and white advertisements, usually with a single color.
The duration in seconds of a commercial. Standard spot lengths are :10, :15, :30, and :60.
An organization that provides cost per point ratings data for 30 second spots in eight dayparts. Agencies use this service as a planning tool for establishing CPP's in local spot markets.
All commercial advertising time either available for sale or purchase from local TV stations. There are two major types of spot advertising. 1) Local Spot: Advertising bought on one station in one market. These sales are usually handled by the TV station. 2) National Spot: Advertising bought by national advertisers in several markets of their own selection. These sales are handled by the local TV station representatives.
A map indicating all locations included in a specific out-of-home program.
Refers to a pair of facing pages in a periodical, or an advertisement which is printed across two such pages.
Advertising panels with the facings built one above the other.
A schedule of advertisements in a number of periodicals which have different insertion dates.
Non-satellite cable service programmed by video tapes secured directly from program suppliers.
A measurement system for selecting and placing ad sizes in newspapers.
A measure which shows the average variability (or dispersion) in population from the mean. It is defined as the square root of the variance.
A measure of the margin of error in a survey result attributable to sampling.
The parent language for HTML.
Geography defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget which includes a city of 50,000 or more inhabitants and the county(s) in which it is located. This is an old term now replaced by Metropolitan Statistical Area.
A commercial firm that publishes reference volumes that include up-to-date information on rates, requirements, closing dates, and other information necessary for ad placement in the media.
Starch scores are a measurement showing the performance of individual magazine advertisements among readers. Starch scores report three percentages: "Noted" is the percentage that remember having previously seen the ad in the issue being studied; "Associated" is the percentage that saw any part of the ad that clearly indicates the brand or advertiser; "Read Most" is the percentage that read at least half of the written material in the advertisement.
The first day of an advertising campaign.
1) Ads that remain on a web page for a specified period of time; 2) Embedded ads.
The entity that is the source of television or radio program broadcasts.
The time between programs when a local station identifies itself and airs commercials and/or promotional announcements.
The number of stations transmitting a program.
Brief advisories giving the call sign of a broadcast station and its city of license. The FCC requires such IDs on the hour.
Network affiliated stations actually carrying a given network program.
The official, chronological listing of the day's programming and commercial announcements for a television or radio station.
Refers to Poster panels location on train, subway or commuter rail platforms, several sizes available.
An advertising salesperson from a television or radio station.
The overall audience estimate based on ratings data obtained from counties both within and outside a station's market area.
A Network Radio service that provides audience estimates for total radio usage, radio network commercials and network commercials within programs (RADAR). All audience estimates are based on daily telephone interviews during a seven-day period.
Refers to whether some research results genuinely reflect a population of interest in some way or whether the results could occur by chance. Statistical significance is determined by comparing the research results with the values defined by the confidence interval.
A measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining individual users. Stickiness is usually measured by the duration of the visit.
Determination of the steps required to reach an objective of achieving the optimum fit between the organization and the marketplace.
An equally measured statistical sample which represents all the categories into which the population has been divided.
1) Technology that permits continuous audio and video delivered to a computer from a remote web site; 2) An Internet data transfer technique that allows the user to see and hear audio and video files. The host or source compresses, then "streams" small packets of information over the Internet to the user, who can access the content as it is received.
A software program which decompresses audio and/or video files so the user can hear and/or see the video or audio file. Some examples are Real Player, Windows Media, and Quick Time Player.
Advertising displays, many that provide a public amenity, positioned at close proximity to pedestrians and shoppers for eye-level viewing, or at curbside to influence vehicular traffic. Street furniture displays include: transit shelters, newsstands/newsracks, kiosks, shopping mall panels, convenience store panels and in-store signage.
Scheduling the same program in the same time period for five or more consecutive days in any week.
A concise language for retrieving information from or changing information in a database. SQL queries approximate the structure of an English natural-language query. SQL is usually pronounced "sequel".
A sample of a sample, which may or may not be selected using the same approach as the original sample.
Advertising messages that are supposedly disguised so that they are not able to be overtly seen and/or heard yet are nevertheless effective in persuading members of the audience. There is no scientific evidence to indicate that this approach is effective communication and, if there were convincing evidence of effectiveness, the approach would likely be prohibited as a deceptive business practice.
A non-syndicated magazine study measuring demographic and other characteristics of a publisher’s subscriber audience – usually commissioned by the publisher.
Advertising panels built as an integral part of beach locale sun shelters.
A newspaper section in magazine format, such as Parade.
Backlit framed Posters affixed to streetside of phone booth kiosks, illuminated at night, with visibility to vehicles and pedestrians.
Posters affixed to the sides of public buses with largest Transit format 30" high x 240" wide.
A process in TV production where an image, words, or phrases are imposed over another image.
An over-the-air television station whose local signal is also delivered via satellite to cable systems across the country. To date, all superstations have been independent stations, such as WTBS in Atlanta, WOR in New York, and WGN in Chicago. Programming generally consists of the usual independent fare: classic movies, syndication, and sports.
An interstitial format developed by Unicast which is fully pre-cached before playing. Specs are 550 x 480 pixels (2/3 of screen), up to 100K file size and up to 20 seconds in length.
Non-mass media vehicles that are used to promote products, e.g., Point-of-Purchase advertising.
Companies that sell goods or services to an advertising agency for their use in constructing advertisements, e.g., design studios, color houses, printers, paper producers, media software, etc.
Using a TV remote to click on one channel after another. In Interne parlance, such activity is called "browsing", as the computer's browser is used to surf the Internet, moving from one web site to another.
Advertising sequence in which a visitor receives ads from one advertiser throughout an entire site visit.
A data collection activity involving observation or questionnaires for a sample of a population. (A census is a 100-percent sample survey; it collects information about every member of a population). Surveys are normally less expensive to conduct than censuses; hence, they may be taken more frequently and can provide an information update between censuses. Often, they are used to collect a wider variety of information than is collected in a census.
The geographical area from which a sample is developed for a study.
Ratings surveys in which local markets are simultaneously measured by a rating service. Nielsen Media Research surveys all 210 local U.S. television markets in November, February, May and July (Honolulu, Fairbanks and Juneau are excluded in July). These months are known as sweep months, and the data are used by local stations and cable systems to set local ad rates and to make program decisions. The term "sweep" dates back to the beginning of local television measurements in the 1950's and refers to how Nielsen Media Research mailed diaries to sample households starting with the East Coast and sweeping across the nation.
A sales representative's offer made to get a buyer to move an advertising schedule from one station to another.
A type of DSL that uses only one of the two cable pairs for transmission. SDSL allows residential or small office users to share the same telephone for data transmission and voice or fax telephony.
A television or radio program that is distributed in more than one market by an organization other than a network.
Information collected on a regular basis that is then sold to interested clients.
The four digit identification number assigned by Advanced Media Systems to all ad insertable cable systems, interconnects, channels, regional networks and zones. It is similar to broadcast call letters.
Information about your computer hardware and software.
A smaller region (system) or city (subsystem) within a cable interconnect. Systems and subsystems form levels of cable advertising that make it possible for advertisers to target very specific geographic areas.
The process of counting the various responses to each question asked in a survey.
A size of newspaper that is roughly half the size of a standard newspaper. A page size is normally 14" high by 12" wide.
HTML fragment that enables a web site to serve an impression.
A slogan or phrase that visually conveys the most important product attribute or benefit that the advertiser wishes to convey. Generally, a theme to a campaign.
Panels affixed to tail area of public transit buses or Posters affixed to the front end of public buses between headlights.
That portion of the total audience defined to be the most likely purchasers of a given product or service. Usually defined in terms of specific demographic (age, sex, income, etc.), purchase, or ownership characteristics. Demographic Audience = Total Audience x Audience Composition.
GRP's adjusted for the target demo using the Target Rating.
Advertising structures affixed to taxicabs, either on the roof or at the rear. Roof panels are called taxi tops and are generally backlit at night.
Electronic commerce on interactive television.
An advertisement torn from a newspaper or magazine, sent to an agency or advertiser as evidence of insertion.
An advertising campaign aimed at arousing interest and curiosity for a product.
A television broadcast.
Method of interviewing conducted by telephone to measure exposure of the respondent at the moment the interview is being conducted (e.g., “When the telephone rang, was anyone in the household watching television?”).
Teletext is an over-the-air system for transmission of text and simple graphics onto a TV screen (i.e., a video newspaper). It utilizes the unused portion of the broadcast scanning bar and requires a decoder. Teletext is essentially a one-way system. By using a special keypad provided to the household, however, the user may select specific pages to be seen.
An occupied household having one or more television receivers in use.
A display of frequency (or related data) among audiences grouped into equal thirds of reach.
The trading area selected to test a company's new or modified product, service, or promotion.
The trading area selected to test a company's new or modified product, service, or promotion.
One form or market testing. It usually involves actually marketing a new product in one or several cities. The effort is totally representative of what the firm intends to do later upon national marketing (or regional market rollout). Various aspects of the marketing plan may be tested (e.g., advertising expenditure levels or, less often, product form variants), by using several pairs of cities. Output is a mix of learning, especially a sales and profit forecast. In some areas, test marketing is currently being stretched to include scanner market testing, in which the marketing activity is less than total, but the term is best confined to the full-scale activity.
An advertisement using text-based hyperlinks.
The delivery of a text-based advertisement to a browser. To compensate for slow Internet connections, visitors may disable "auto load images" in their graphical browser. When they reach a page that contains an advertisement, they see a marker and the advertiser's message in text format in place of the graphical ad. Additionally, if a user has a text-only browser, only textual ads are delivered and recorded as textual ad impressions.
Independent outsourced companies that specialize in managing, maintaining, serving, tracking, and analyzing the results of online ad campaigns. They deliver targeted advertising that can be tailored to consumers' declared or predicted characteristics or preferences.
A standardized Poster display structure commonly 12'3" x 24'6" in overall size with a copy area of approximately 9'6" x 21'7", and a bleed copy area of 10'5" x 22'8".
The process of a server sending a browser the location of a requested ad, rather than sending the ad itself. Ad servers use 302 redirects to allow them to track activities such as ad requests or ad clicks.
A technique used by the Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB) and PMB (from 1973 to 2000) to estimate total readership of a publication. Respondents are asked to examine a stripped-down issue of any magazine that they have read or looked into recently. Initially they are asked which articles are especially interesting. After examining the publication, respondents are asked whether they have read or looked into this specific issue previously. Those who answer yes are counted as readers of the magazine.
The amount of data transmitted through Internet connectors in response to a given request.
The practice of cable system operators to group cable networks for the purpose of marketing. Generally, a system will have a “basic” tier included in a base subscription price and “premium” tiers which usually include movie channels and sports channels.
Companies that primarily buy commercial time on local stations and cable systems for resale to advertisers or agencies.
An interval of time on a station, cable system or network. Sometimes, but not necessarily, an entire Daypart (prime time, daytime, etc,). In audience research, ratings for time periods are often calculated, as opposed to program averages, for the purpose of evaluating station or network performance.
Rating calculated for a specific time interval, such as 15 or 30 minutes, as opposed to a specific program.
Tracer or tag which is attached by the receiving server to the address (URL) of a page requested by a user. A token lasts only through a continuous series of requests by a user, regardless of the length of the interval between requests. Tokens can be used to count unique users.
A high-speed (1.54 megabits/second) Internet connection.
The percentage of respondents who gave the highest or top score on a scale. Sometimes the top two or three scores may be aggregated to calculate a top boxes score.
Total of all classes of a publication's circulation for which the ultimate purchasers have paid in accordance with the standards set by the Audit Bureau of Circulations' rules. Includes single copy sales, mail subscriptions, and specials.
The total number of qualified readers of an average issue of a publication.
The number of advertising executions needed to achieve GRP goals.
Total number of browsers or individuals which have accessed a site within a specific time period.
Total number of browsers accessing a web site within a specific time period. Total visits should filter robotic activity, but can include visits from repeat visitors.
The collection and automated analysis of data associated with the serving of digital creative. Tracking provides the frequency control, accounting, stats data and anti-fraud components of a campaign.
The method used to track post-click actions. A small piece of HTML code is placed in the advertiser's action page. This causes a clear, single pixel GIF image (1X1) to be loaded which counts the action if a corresponding tracking cookie exists on the visitor's computer.
A type of research study that follows the same group of subjects over an extended period of time.
Advertising designed to increase sales specifically for retailers and wholesalers.
The number of visits and/or visitors who come to a web site.
The third-party verification of traffic circulation in a market. Traffic audit information is used to calculate Out-of-Home DEC figures.
A promotional tactic using direct mail. Designed to draw consumers to the mailer's location.
The recording of the vehicles and pedestrians passing a given point, used by TAB (Traffic Audit Bureau) to authenticate the potential exposure of Out-of-Home structures.
The successful response to a page request; also when a browser receives a complete page of content from a web server.
Another term for the automatic loading (pop) of a new browser window containing the advertiser's content.
A software standard used by the Internet to understand all computer languages and most computers.
Those Out-of-Home media appearing on the exterior or interior of public transportation vehicles or stations (buses, trains, commuter rail, subways, platforms, terminals, etc.).
Posters attached to the exterior of buses. Common displays are king panels measuring 30' x 144' in overall size with a bleed copy area of 29' x 144', queen panels measuring 30' x 88' in overall size with a bleed copy area of 29' x 88', and side panels measuring 21' x 70' in overall size with the same bleed copy area.
Posters displayed in commuter rail stations and on trains.
A curbside structure located at regular stopping points along urban bus routes. Backlit posters are affixed to transit shelter structures using a standardized display format measuring 69' x 48' in overall size with a bleed copy area of 67' x 46'.
A positive, color photographic image on clear film.
An electrical circuit on a satellite that receives and retransmits audio and video signals. Transponders on a satellite are somewhat analogous to channels on a television set.
The use of analytical techniques, such as time series analysis, to discern trends.
Subscriptions resulting from test offers.
A command from the host server that notifies the viewer's set-top box that interactive content is available at this point. The viewer is notified about the available interactive content via an icon or clickable text. Once clicked by using the remote control, the trigger disappears and more content or a new interface appears on the TV screen.
A size of a magazine or newspaper page after trimming.
A very high-speed (45 megabits/second or higher) Internet connection.
1) Television: Turnover is the number of times the audience changes during a time period. It explains the relationship between AQH and cume. A low turnover factor indicates a better frequency builder and a high turnover factor indicates faster cume growth. 2) Radio Turnover = Cume / Average Audience 3) Print: The proportion of the readers of a second issue of a publication who do not see the preceding issue. Calculated as (C2-C1)/C1, where C2 is the net reach of two issues.
Framed Posters placed near entrances of convenience stores, independent grocery stores, and other retail points-of-sale.
That part of the spectrum used by television channels 14 through 83. This is the 470 to 800 mHz band.
A measure of how many respondents can quote a brand name without any assistance on behalf of the interviewer.
Delivery of fewer impressions, visitors, or conversions than contracted for a specified period of time.
Advertising that is likely to harm the consumer. The FTC has the power to regulate unfair advertising that falls within a very specific legal definition.
The unique identifying address of any particular page on the web. It contains all the information required to locate a resource, including its protocol (usually HTTP), server domain name (or IP address), file path (directory and name) and format (usually HTML or CGI).
An out-of-home unit that has not been equipped with lighting for nighttime illumination of an advertising message. The DEC for an unilluminated unit is calculated using a 12 hour viewing period.
The number of unique individuals who have visited a web site at least once in the reporting period.
The total number of unique pages on a web site by a unique user.
Unique individual or browser which has either accessed a site or which has been served unique content and/or ads such as email, newsletters, interstitials and pop-under ads. Unique users do not include repeat users during a specified session. Unique users can be identified by user registration or cookies. Report unique users should filter out robots.
A unique IP address visiting a web site for the first time in a specified period. Unique visitor is more often associated with long periods of time, such as a month. User session is more often associated with shorter periods of time, such as 30 minutes. Both are valuable traffic metrics for many web sites. Frequency control in ad campaigns is a function of unique visitor and user session definitions.
Forms of statistical analysis that are used where there is a single measure of each variable or where each variable is measured in isolation of other variables.
Broadband, packet-based transmission of text, digitized voice, video, and multimedia at data rates up to and possibly higher than 2 megabits per second, offering a set of services to mobile computer and phone users no matter where they are located in the world.
The population chosen for a research study. Universe estimates are the estimated number of actual households or people from which the sample will be taken, and to which data from the sample will be projected.
Copies distributed either entirely free or at a price inadequate to qualify them as paid in accordance with the rules.
IP addresses that do not identify their 1st of 2nd level domain. Unresolved IP addresses should be aggregated and reported as such.
The buying of national television advertising time for a full broadcast year (generally September through August), via one negotiation. Upfront buying usually requires representation throughout all four quarters ; allows cancellation options in the last six months of a buy and generally allows audience guarantees to advertisers. It usually occurs in the Spring after the new Fall schedules have been announced and presented to major advertisers. The commercial time not sold in the upfront, is sold later in the season in the scatter market.
To send data from a computer to a network. An example of uploading data is sending email.
Available in subway systems at station entrances; copy area measures 28" high x 58" wide.
The process of embedding unique identifiers into URL's contained in HTML content. These identifiers are recognized by web servers on subsequent browser requests. Identifying visitors through information in the URL's should also allow for an acceptable calculation of visits, if caching is avoided.
A research step in the design and launch of a web site, where users evaluate the ease of use of a web site's navigation, layout and other attributes.
Internet bulletin-board application.
A field in the server log file which identifies the specific browser software and computer operating system making the request.
Web audience measurement based on the behavior of a sample of web users.
Information contributed by an individual, which usually includes characteristics such as the person's age, gender, zip code and often much more. A site's registration system is usually based on an ID code or password to allow the site to determine the number of unique visitors and to track a visitor's behavior within that site.
A research method which psychologically groups consumers based on certain characteristics such as their values, lifestyles, and demographics.
A property that takes on different values at different times.
A measure of variability (or dispersion) of a distribution and it is equal to the mean of the squared deviations of all values from the mean.
The media unit of a medium, in which an advertisement is placed. For example, one medium would be magazines, while one vehicle would be Time magazine.
A graphical method of representing operations on sets that is often used to illustrate probabilities.
A banner ad measuring 120 pixels wide and 240 pixels tall.
A reduced rate offered to advertisers who purchase airtime on a broadcast medium for a limited amount of time, e.g., one week.
Publications whose editorial content deals with the interests of a specific industry, e.g., National Petroleum Magazine and Retail Baking Today.
Development is underway to produce large screens that can be mounted on a painted Bulletin. These screens will beam full color ads to motorists from sundown to midnight. Potentially, Out-of-Home advertising may even include holographic displays, laser lighting systems, and satellite transmissions to enable advertisers to produce virtually any effect they desire on their Out-of-Home displays.
An umbrella term for a wide set of technologies and companies whose common goal is to enable individuals to select videos from a central server for viewing on television.
Videotext is a two-way system for transmitting words, numbers, and graphics by cable or telephone wires. The viewer, equipped with a computer and with communication capability, may send information (i.e., responses) back to the home source (usually a master computer).
Person viewing content or ads on the web. There is currently no way to measure viewers.
The average number of people viewing a program or using television during a particular time period among households that have at least one TV set turned on. VPVH’s are important because of their usefulness in estimating average target audiences for future TV programs. For example, 6 viewers in 2 homes, where at least one TV set is on, equals an average of 3 viewers per viewing HH. Estimated Average Target Audience = Estimated TV Homes Audience X Target VPVH.
A single-sheet substrate on which an advertising message is rendered by either computer production or hand painting. Vinyl is primarily used on the face of bulletins and Premiere products.
The use of a self-perpetuation mechanism, such as a referral or affiliate program, to grow a user base in a manner similar to the spread of a virus. Good viral marketing campaigns have extraordinary ROI.
Programming language designed to be a 3D analog to HTML.
The activity of one visitor to a web site.
The length of time the visitor is exposed to a specific ad, web page or web site during a single session.
Individual or browser which accesses a web site within a specific time period.
GRP's adjusted for the volume target demo using the Volume Rating.
Murals painted or attached directly onto the exterior surface of a building.
Any device (e.g., mobile phone, PDA, or simulator) that allows access to wireless content.
Mobile phones which utilize wireless application protocol technology to access the Internet. The screen on a WAP phone can be used to deliver ads.
1) Advertising in an area where the product or service is not available or has no sales potential, 2) Persons in an advertiser's audience who are not potential customers.
A single mailing or group of interviews conducted at about the same time. A research study or survey may consist of several waves.
An advertising strategy that consists of scheduling space in the media in intermittent periods, e.g., two weeks on, two weeks off.
A condition of inattention and possible irritation that occurs after an audience or target market has encountered a specific advertisement too many times.
A snippet of code placed in an ad, on a web page, or in an email which helps measure whether the ad, page or email was delivered to the browser and to track actions in general. A web beacon is often invisible because it is only 1 x 1 pixel in size with no color.
A web page is a document written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) that can be accessed on the Internet.
A web server is a computer permanently connected to the Internet that serves information, files, web pages, and other services to any client (e.g., computer with browser) that logs onto it and requests them.
A virtual location online designated by a unique URL. A web site is made up of one or more web pages.
System of grouping based on content or demographic interests. These may include automotive, Internet, financial sites, etc.
Details that may include historical demographic and psychographic information about visitors to the web site, or a portion thereof.
A questionnaire that is based on a web site. Potential respondents are invited to participate in the survey (by a banner advert or other message) and then they are given a link to a satellite site where they complete a questionnaire. The survey is completed on line and respondents can be offered anonymity.
Real-time or pre-recorded delivery of a live event's audio, video or animation over the Internet.
The individual responsible for the management of a web site.
1) An adjustment made in a survey sample to correct for demographic or geographic imbalances. 2) Number of exposures of an advertisement.
A statistical quantity calculated by multiplying each value in a group by an assigned weight, summing these products and dividing the total by the sum of the weights.
Reach that is weighted based on factors such as category position, creative appeal, behavioral objective, concurrent brand activity, competitive advertising activity, and competitive promotional activity.
1) Weighting is conducted at the data processing stage of a survey in order to restore target sub-groups to their proportion of the population under study. The weighting may be used to re-balance a sample subject to stratification, or to correct for various types of disproportionate over sampling. 2) When the responses from some (or all) sub-groups are assigned a statistical weight to reflect the importance of the sub-group in the population of interest. 3) A weight is a numerical value assigned to each unit of the sample. Weighting is the process of multiplying the unit data by the unit weight and then summing these weighted values across all units of the sample.
Unoccupied parts of a print advertisement, including between blocks of type, illustrations, headlines, etc.
A group of computers connected together (a network) which are not located at the same physical location.
The household is wired for cable, e.g. receives cable via a wire to the home from a cable headend located in the community. If a home is "wired" to receive cable channels on any TV set in the home, then the home is considered a "wired" cable home.
Term to describe those households that subscribe to a cable service.
A specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular mobile telephones, PDA's and others can be used for Internet-based access.
An organization that provides content and applications for wireless devices.
1) Consumer Behavior Definition: This occurs when people share information about products or promotions with friends. 2) Consumer Behavior Definition: The information imparted by a consumer or individual other than the sponsor. It is sharing information about a product, promotion, etc. between a consumer and a friend, colleague, or other acquaintance. For example, a consumer may tell a friend about a particularly good price he or she received on a product. Research has found that word-of-mouth communication about products is more likely to be negative than positive.
The graphical Internet hypertext service that uses the HTTP protocol to retrieve web pages and other resources from web servers.
Avoiding seeing a television commercial by channel switching – usually by remote control. Zapping also refers to deletion of commercials during VCR recording. Advertisers are concerned that this will be harmful, but it is still unclear what effect zapping will have on advertising effectiveness.
A geographical classification system developed by the U.S. government for mail distribution. A nested, numeric code with a range of five to nine digits.
Real-time geographic targeting of advertisements based on the zip code of the user.
The act of fast forwarding through commercials while watching a previously taped show on a VCR. Advertisers are concerned about the effect of zipping on advertising effectiveness, but any effect is not yet known. In fact, viewers may pay more attention to advertising while zipping to be able to stop fast forwarding in time when the show resumes.